Feminine Deodorant
www.FeminineDeodorant.com


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To advertise on this site, send email to: info@FeminineDeodorant.com

www.FeminineDeodorant.com

"The" #1 Site and Best Internet Address for "Feminine Deodorant"

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Since 1997, we have been the leading publisher for the best brand names on the internet
:

Feminine Hygiene  *  Feminine Deodorant  *  Feminine Itching  *  Feminine Odor 
Menstrual Disorders
  *  Obstetrics and Gynecology  *  Organic Cotton Tampons
Pelvic Organ Prolapse  *  Vaginal Odor  *  Vaginal pH and 
Vulvovaginal Health Information & Products


Your Company's Feminine Odor & Feminine Deodorant 
Products Could be Featured on our Sites:

www.FeminineDeodorant.com

and

www.FeminineOdor.com

 

For more information, send email to:

info@FeminineDeodorant.com

 

****  We are not doctors and do not provide medical or legal advice  ****
If you have a medical or healthcare concern, call or visit your healthcare provider.

 









____________________________________

Feminine Deodorant
www.FeminineDeodorant.com


What is "Feminine Deodorant"?

Feminine Deodorant is a feminine hygiene product used by women in the vulvovaginal area much like they use underarm deodorant to mask or cover vaginal odor. There are 7-8 major brands of feminine deodorants which are found on the feminine hygiene aisles at grocery stores and drug stores.

Throughout the day, and throughout a menstruating woman's menstrual cycle, her vulva and vagina produces a number of scents (and their respective chemical compounds) which come from urine, menstrual fluids, sweat, vaginal moisture and sometimes a vaginal discharge. Women feel more confident by using a feminine deodorant just as they do when using an underarm deodorant, and use a feminine deodorant after their bath or shower. Some women choose to use corn starch as their feminine deodorant on and around the vulvovaginal area.

Special note; women should NEVER use talcum powder on/in or around the vulvovaginal due to the link of multiple types of cancers (vaginal, cervical, uterine and vulvar cancer) associated with talcum powder use.


Did you know your vaginal odor problem could be 
related to your vagina not having the correct pH level?

See:  www.VaginalPH.com for more information

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GreatSkin.com

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Feminine Odor
www.FeminineOdor.com

Advertise Your  Product, Company or Medical Practice 
at the BEST website address for Feminine Odor!



Your Ad Here


www.FeminineOdor.com

"The" #1 Site and Best Internet Address for "Feminine Odor"

For ad rates or more information, send email to:

info@FeminineOdor.com

_____________________________________________________

Feminine Hygiene
www.FeminineHygiene.com

The Leading Resource for Feminine Hygiene Since 1997!


The Leading Resource on Feminine Hygiene, Menstruation, 
Obstetrics and Gynecology
 and Vulvovaginal Health and Safer, Healthier, 
Environmentally-Friendly Feminine Hygiene Products Since 1997


Introducing, The 
I
nipad
sm

a Revolutionary Alternative 
in Feminine Hygiene & Period Protection.....

The BEST Alternative to using Tampons in over 70 years!!

Our Inipads are:

NOT a Tampon, 
NOT a MaxiPad, 
NOT a MiniPad,

NOT placed in the Vagina!

They're an Inipad
And much "Better than a Tampon!"

A Tampon that's NOT a Tampon....
Because the Safest Tampon, is NO Tampon At All!

Inipads
www.Inipads.com

We are strategically positioned for success in the Feminine Hygiene and  Gynecologic Health marketplace through our revolutionary "Inipads."  Our Inipads are superior in every way to ordinary tampons.  We believe our Inipads are also much safer for women as well as the environment than other feminine hygiene products.

Every month, we receive a inquiries and order requests for our Inipads and becoming a leader in the $2.4 Billion Feminine Hygiene market in the U.S.  We are seeking joint venture participants with a goal of raising $10 million to fund our Inipad "better than a tampon" business.  Prospective joint venture partners are invited to send an introductory email to: info@FeminineHygiene.com for more information.


Best of all, we own the internet's BEST website address for the ENTIRE Feminine Hygiene industry, and for marketing our Inipads
:

www.FeminineHygiene.com!

Inipads - it's what women
and single dads with daughters want!


Unlike our Inipads that are worn OUTSIDE of the Vagina, in between the Labia Minora and significantly reduce the risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome caused by Tampons and the Staphylococcus Aureus virus!


For more information, send email to
:

info@FeminineHygiene.com



_____________________________________

Inipads sm
Safer, Healthier, Environmentally-Friendly
Feminine Hygiene Products, Information, Education and Resources

www.Inipads.com


COMING SOON..... 
Femgyn Health's  INIPADS!
A Tampon that's NOT a Tampon!

Femgyn Health's Inipads are like a pantyliner - but NOT a pantyliner..... 

Femgyn Health's Inipads are like a  tampon, but not a tampon! 

Our new Femgyn Health's Inipads are similar to the previous "inter labial pads" in that they are placed between the labia minora (smaller lips) of a woman's vulva, on the outside of her vagina, and not IN the vagina (see picture below) like tampons are. 

Best of all, our Femgyn Health's Inipads are made from 100% certified organic cotton, the safest and best material that can be used for feminine hygiene....  with no adhesives or harsh chemicals ever used!

Our Femgyn Health's Inipads stay in place naturally in the "interlabial" space between a woman's labia minora without any harsh chemicals or adhesives, without shifting or bunching like menstrual pads and pantiliners....  Our Inipads won't dry out a woman's vagina like typical tampons do, especially toward the end of each menstrual period.  Finally, and best of all, our Inipads won't pinch your vagina or cause irritations of your vagina - not to mention the microscopic cuts inside of the vagina, the way tampons do, especially when inserting and removing a tampon from the vagina up to 4-6 times/day!

Women use our Femgyn Health's Inipads during their menstrual periods or for other feminine hygiene reasons, such as vaginal discharge or urinary leakage.  

Femgyn Health's Inipads don't overly absorb or cause vaginal dryness problems since they aren't worn in the vagina.

Femgyn Health's Inipads absorb like tampons worn inside the vagina, but are never inserted in the vagina like tampons - where a woman's vagina frequently becomes excessively dry toward the end of her period, due to the drying properties of tampons.

Femgyn Health's Inipads have two absorbencies which are our "Light Inipads" and our "Regular Inipads."

Femgyn Health's Inipads will never bunch up or shift around like the typical menstrual pads and they are very comfortable to wear, even when sitting for long periods!

Femgyn Health's Inipads are usually replaced when urinating, and can be safely flushed down the toilet or wrapped and thrown into the trash.

Remember!!!  Femgyn Health's Inipads are made from certified organic cotton - and NOT made from the same materials commonly used in the leading feminine hygiene brands of tampons and menstrual pads. This means that our Femgyn Health's Inipads are great for you and great for our environment! 

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What is Adhesiolysis?

Treatment for the removal of Pelvic Adhesions is through a surgical procedure called "adhesiolysis." The adhesiolysis procedure may involve cutting and releasing the adhesions during a laparoscopy procedure or treating the adhesions during a laparotomy.


What is Bladder Neck Suspension?

Bladder Neck Suspension is a surgical procedure that is performed to support the bladder's "neck" which is where the urethra joins the bladder.  Bladder Neck Suspension procedure is performed to treat female urinary incontinence wherein women may lose urine when coughing, sneezing or even laughing.


What Is Colpopexy?

A woman's vagina may become dis-placed or change location from its normal location within its normal vulvovaginal location.  When it becomes displaced, a colpopexy or vaginal repair surgery is required to re-locate the vagina.  

Colpopexy is the surgical procedure wherein the vagina is repositioned to the correct location within the pelvis.

Colpopexy is the standard protocol for correcting vaginal vault prolapse - also referred to as vaginal prolapse - which occurs when the vagina's supporting structure weakens to the point that the vagina will bulge; "fall" in on itself or even fall outside of the vaginal opening. Vaginal prolapse is a common occurrence in women that have had a hysterectomy, entered into menopause or have had one or more vaginal childbirths. 

There are two major types of Colpopexy surgeries:

1.  sacral colpopexy 

and 

2.  vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy.

Colpopexy is the surgical suturing of the prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure - such as the abdominal wall or the sacrum, which is then called Sacral Colpopexy or Sacrocolpopexy.


What is Colporrhaphy?

Colporrhaphy is the surgical repair of the vaginal wall. This includes repairing many types of vaginal surgery, including the repairs of the vagina in a "Pelvic Organ Prolapse," "vaginal prolapse," "Vaginal Vault Prolapse," or the repair of a "cystocele" in the vaginal wall(s) or vaginal vault or a rectocele. A cystocele occurs when the bladder protrudes into the vagina, and a rectocele when the rectum protrudes into the vagina.

In the Colporrhaphy procudeure, a uro-gynecologist, or gynecological surgeon, places a vaginal speculum inside the vagina, which spreads/keeps the vagina open, for the doctor to inspect and repair the vagina. The vaginal wall is cut opened to reveal an opening in the supporting structures, or fascia and the defect is closed and then the vagina is repaired by suture and closed, and the speculum removed.


Who performs the Colporrhaphy and where is it performed?


Colporrhaphy is usually performed in a nearby hospital operating room by a uro-gynecologist, urologist or gynecological surgeon.


What is "Colposuspension" surgery?


Age and vaginal childbirth takes it toll on women's pelvic organs.

"Female Urinary Incontinence" is one of the problems most (over 50%) women who have delivered babies vaginally have to contend with. Women with Female Urinary Incontinence "leak" urine when they strain, cough, laugh or run. This condition is also called "stress urinary incontinence" meaning the stress of physical activity, not emotional stress is causing her to "leak" urine.

The problems associated with female urinary incontinence are corrected in the the "floor" of the woman's pelvis by several methods or types of surgeries - one of which is called Colposuspension.

A woman's pelvic floor is a sheet of special muscles and ligaments that stretch across the inside of the female pelvis. Women can feel it "tighten" when they try to hold back the flow of urine - or when they strain, cough, laugh or run. The uterus and bladder are located above the pelvic floor. The vagina and the opening of the bladder (the urethra) pass through the pelvic floor. If the pelvic floor weakens, the uterus and bladder "drop" down. The control of the urine is thereby weakened.

Colposuspension surgery strengthens the pelvic floor to lift, or "suspend" the uterus and bladder back up to their correct position within the woman's pelvis.

Colposuspension comes from the Greek word for vagina - "colpos."


What is Dilation and Curettage

Dilation and curettage - also referred to as a "D & C" - is a surgical procedure whereby the doctor scrape the inside of the woman's uterus to remove the lining. For most women with menorrhagia, a D&C is temporary and reduces excessive bleeding for only a few periods.

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.  As a hysterectomy involves the removal of the woman's uterus, menorrhagia will no longer be a problem. Hysterectomy is also a surgical procedure and also involves risks. The recovery period after hysterectomy is 3 to 6 weeks. 


What is Endometrial Ablation?

Endometrial Ablation is the removal of the lining of the uterus, or "endometrium."  After the doctor removes the uterine lining, this significantly decreases a woman's menstrual flow or stops it completely.

Endometrial Ablation is another possible therapy but only if you and your husband don't plan to have children in the future. 

Typical Endometrial Ablation removes the lining of the uterus with an electrosurgical tool or laser. Like any surgical procedure, there are risks, which include perforation of the uterus, bleeding, infection, or even heart failure due to fluids used to open up or distend the uterus.

More information about Endometrial Ablation at:  www.EndometrialAblation.net


What is Female Urinary Incontinence?

Female urinary incontinence is the inability for a woman to control urination.  

Female urinary incontinence is a significant and troubling problem for the majority of all women that have delivered one or more babies vaginally. 

Vaginal childbirth causes a "trauma" to the woman's vagina and pelvic region which includes the bladder, urethra and the ligaments that support them. 

Urine leakage when laughing, sneezing or coughing is a symptom of a woman having female urinary incontinence and a reason for her to visit her doctor.

Most people do not know that the majority of feminine hygiene products are sold to women - NOT for menstruation, but for female urinary incontinence!


What is "Feminine Deodorant"?

Feminine Deodorants are products used by women in their vulvovaginal area much like they use underarm deodorant.  Feminine deodorants can be found on the feminine hygiene aisles at grocery stores and drug stores.

Throughout the day, and throughout a menstruating woman's menstrual cycle, her vulva and vagina produces a number of scents (and their respective chemical compounds) which come from urine, menstrual fluids, sweat, vaginal moisture and sometimes a vaginal discharge. Women feel more confident by using a feminine deodorant just as they do when using an underarm deodorant, and use a feminine deodorant after their bath or shower.  Some women choose to use corn starch as their feminine deodorant on and around their vulvovaginal area.  

Special note; women should NEVER use talcum powder on/in or around the vulvovaginal due to the link of multiple types of cancers (vaginal, cervical, uterine and vulvar cancer) associated with talcum powder use.


What is
Feminine Itching?

One of the most annoying feminine or gynecological problem a girl or woman will face in her life is feminine itching. Every young girl and woman will experience the discomfort, embarrassment and possible pain of feminine itching at some point in their life. For most women, feminine itching may be a recurring nuisance, and potential indication of a minor or possibly serious medical symptom and condition which should also be a signal to her that she needs to see her gynecologist as soon as possible.

There are many reasons and causes for vaginal and/or vulva itching. A few of these are;

* allergies or reactions to perfumes or soaps
* excessive perspiration
* staying in a wet swimsuit and/or failure to change out of a wet swimsuit
* the wearing of jeans that are too tight around a woman's vulva
* vaginal douching
*
vaginal dryness
* use of some types of
feminine deodorant
* some types of
feminine hygiene products that are scented or contain chemicals/materials that irritate the vulvovaginal area.
* scented toilet paper
* bacterial vaginosis
*
sexually transmitted diseases
* trichomoniasis
* herpes
* chlamydia
*
pelvic inflammatory disease
*
Vaginal yeast infections
*
vulvovaginitis

Even a woman's monthly hormonal changes and variations may play a role in contributing to vaginal dryness which, in turn, may cause feminine itching. Sexual intercourse - with prolonged intercourse or too much friction inside a woman's vagina can lead to internal soreness and irritation.... and feminine itching.

Vaginal and vulva perspiration can lead to irritation, and damp panties from excessive vaginal moisture, not changing panties after they become wet from whatever reason(s) (exercise, sexual activity, excessive vaginal moisture or perspiration), poor hygiene and/or failure to properly wipe from front to back after urination may provide an ideal environment for yeast and bacteria to grow. Changing your panties when they become wet, removing/changing from your swimsuit bottoms after you're finished swimming, and sleeping without panties at night to allow your vagina and vulva adequate airflow will help prevent a number of problems.

Vaginal yeast infections are a common side effect from using antibiotics, the primary treatment for many medical conditions including urinary tract infections ("UTIs"). One of the most common reasons why young girls from 5-8 years-old suffer from urinary tract infections comes from their improper wiping habits - not wiping from front to back - after urinating. Other causes include everything from allergies to soap, bubble baths, laundry detergents to anatomical variations of their vulvas.

Vaginal yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis are very common problems from women in their postmenopausal years. Menopause itself, with the associate vaginal dryness is another contributing factor to feminine itching as the lack of estrogen, which occurs after menopause, leads to thinning, sensitive vaginal tissues that are also much dryer than before menopause.


What about Feminine Odor?

Everyone needs to know about the problems and health concerns that feminine odor can be. Feminine Odor, also known as Vaginal Odor or "VO" is not just a source of embarrassment for women and girls, it could be a sign of a more serious vulvovaginal health concern. 

Let's face it, more and more dads, are being awarded primary and sometimes, sole-custody of their daughter(s). And, it's about time the courts recognize that dad's are just as capable, just as loving, just as nurturing, as a parent, than their ex-wives. Many times, Dad's are even better at parenting. And dads with daughters need to be able to communicate with their daughters when it comes to their daughter's vulvovaginal health and feminine hygiene needs.

While most young ladies do not have problems with vaginal dryness, vaginal odor, feminine deodorant, or feminine itching, changes in their hormones as they approach their first menstrual period, and thereafter, can sometimes lead to these problems.

And when dad is the only parent at home, it's vital that he needs to know how to help his daughter(s) with these health issues. By being informed, honest, and straight forward, dad can be the trusted resource that his daughter(s) need on these healthcare problems. And just as important, if you don't know the answer to her vulvovaginal health or feminine hygiene questions, tell her that you don't know and will find out and let her know. Then, call your family physician and get the answers she needs, and don't wait for her to possibly get the wrong answers from one of her friends at school!

My daughter has asked me about her Feminine Odor problem, what can I do to help her?

Feminine Odor may indicate a serious health condition, always see your doctor whenever you have a health concern!

There are few things more annoying, or concerning to a woman or young lady, than a Feminine Odor problem.

The best answer in this case is to be on the safe side and take your daughter to your pediatrician for him/her to treat. 

A Feminine Odor problem could be the indication of a more serious gynecological condition.

Otherwise, insure that when she is taking her bath or shower, that she is washing her vulva, with a very mild soap, and washing in between the labia and the creases. Make sure she is changing her panties every day.

What to do about Feminine Odor problems. What's a Dad to do?

Feminine Odor may indicate a serious health condition, always see your doctor whenever you have a health concern! 

All menstruating women's vaginas go through monthly changes wherein their vagina's smell or scent changes from one day to the next, and throughout her monthly menstrual cycle. The amount of vaginal secretions, cervical mucous and vaginal moisture, changes from one day to the next, and throughout the monthly menstrual cycle. This is due to the flow of hormones that produce these changes throughout her cycle and also the reason for her monthly menstruation, if she has not conceived.

Feminine Odor problems can be related to many things related to her menstrual hygiene, vaginal hygiene, and/or feminine hygiene, but may also be an indication of a medical condition that may need immediate treatment.

Feminine Odor may be the result of an inflammation of her vagina. The vaginal inflammation is often a result of infection in or around the vagina or vulva, called the vulvovaginal area. Sometimes this condition is referred to as vulvovaginitis.

Causes of
Feminine Odor

Bacterial Vaginosis
Chlamydia
Genital Herpes
Gonorrhea
Lymphogranuloma Venereum ("LGV")
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ("PID")
Sexually Transmitted Infection(s)
Syphilis
Trichomonas
Vaginal Yeast Infection (candida)
Vulvovaginitis


Bacterial Vaginosis leads to
Feminine Odor, what causes it?

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a type of
vulvovaginitis. Bacterial Vaginosis occurs due to an overgrowth of one or more organisms that are normally present in your/your wife's vagina.

Many times, when a woman begins taking antibiotics, these antibiotics kill off the natural organisms in her vagina. This may cause some organisms in her vagina to multiply, and these organisms produce chemicals that cause a fish-like odor characteristic of BV.
Feminine odor may be more acute, and stronger after sexual intercourse.

Many times, while a woman may believe that vaginal douching prevents or helps prevent feminine odor, especially after menstruation, douching actually disrupts the normal flora, or naturally occurring organisms that normally live in the vagina. Vaginal douching, therefore, may actually increase the risk of vaginal infection.

Signs and symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis include(s):

* Grayish-white vaginal discharge
* Vaginal itching or irritation
* Vulva/labial redness, irritation, swelling and redness

Treating Bacterial Vaginosis is normally started after a visit to the ob-gyn who may prescribe medication(s) - usually antibiotics.

Other causes of
feminine odor include the following:

Poor vaginal, menstrual or
feminine hygiene methods.

Not changing tampons, or menstrual pads frequently enough.

"Losing" or forgetting a tampon in the vagina, which may lead to a vaginal infection.

Rarely, an advanced tumor of the cervix or vagina will cause a vaginal odor problem.

Proper Vaginal Hygiene plays an important roles in reducing or eliminating feminine odor.  

Vaginal Hygiene is part an area that focuses its studies, resources, and recommended products on proper Vaginal Hygiene, and overcoming Vaginal Hygiene problems.

Whether you are concerned about menstruation, whether you should consider douching, vaginal odor, vaginal dryness, menstrual odors during menstruation, or general feminine hygiene information, this site is for you.


What is Gynecologic Urology?

Gynecologic Urology, also referred to as Urogynecology, is a subspecialty within the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Uro-gynecologist's specialty is female pelvic disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse - which are bulges that extend from the uterus into the vagina or extend out of the vagina), urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and constipation.

Doctors that complete their residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology, then go onto complete fellowship training in Uro-gynecology, where they spend several years focusing only on Uro-gynecology and female pelvic disorders.

_______________________________________________________

Gynecologic Urology
www.GynecologicUrology.com

The Internet's Leading Site for Gynecologic Urology

Advertise Your  Product, Company or Medical Practice 
at the BEST website address for Gynecologic Urology!

www.GynecologicUrology.com



Your Ad Here


Advertising inquiries may be directed to:

info@GynecologicUrology.com

____________________________________

What is Hysteropexy?

Hysteropexy is the re-positioning and "fixation" of the uterus by a surgical procedure to correct its displacement.


What is Menorrhagia?

Menorrhagia is one of several debilitating "menstrual disorders" facing as many as 20% of all menstruating women. Menorrhagia is the medical term for women (and young girls first starting their menstrual cycles) that suffer from heavy menstrual bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding is defined as having a period that lasts 7 or more days each menstrual cycle (period) or is so heavy that you saturate your menstrual pad and/or tampon and need to change your feminine hygiene product(s) every one to two hours.  It is very important to inform your doctor if you have heavy menstrual bleeding! 

Women that are suffering from menorrhagia may experience; anemia, fatigue,  embarrassing menstrual accidents, and feel that you have to restrict your life and social activities to such an extent that you "miss out on life."  Many women prefer to stay close to home so as to avoid embarrassment due to their need to go to the restroom so often so that they can change their feminine hygiene products before they become too saturated and cause even more embarrassment.


More about
Menorrhagia:  How much blood is there during a "normal" monthly menstrual period?

The average loss of menstrual blood and fluid during a normal monthly period varies from one woman to the next and from one day to the next.  However, a "normal" amount of blood loss during one monthly menstrual period can be anywhere from 6 tablespoons to 9 tablespoons.  However, the "average" that most doctors would agree on is from 4 tablespoons to 6 tablespoons. 


How many women have Menorrhagia?

Approximately 1 in 5 menstruating women have Menorrhagia.

What causes Menorrhagia?

There are a number of medical conditions that may cause (or contribute) to menorrhagia. It's also possible to experience Menorrhagia without any known cause or reason. Here are a few causes of menorrhagia.


What are the symptoms or indications I may have menorrhagia?

Menorrhagia symptoms may include:

Remember, your body has about 5 pints of blood and continuously replenishes its blood supply, but heavy menstrual bleeding should always be a cause for seeing your doctor!


Are there any treatments or therapies for menorrhagia?

Yes, there's hope and help for women with menorrhagia! Here are a few of the options and therapies you will want to discuss with your doctor. 

First off, as many as 50% of women with menorrhagia may see a reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding by taking a Vitamin K supplement, as many women with a vitamin K deficiency have menorrhagia.  You will want to discuss this first with your doctor before taking any supplements. 

Hormone therapy - also known as "both control pills," and/or other medications may be prescribed to treat hormone imbalance. Hormone therapy is effective about 50% of the time, and may be required for a long period of time.

Hysterectomy -  removal of the uterus will end menorrhagia.

Intrauterine Device or IUD, may also prove beneficial in treating menorrhagia in some women.  An IUD is inserted in a woman's uterus by her doctor. The IUD will also act as a contraceptive.

Uterine Balloon Therapy - also known as Thermal Balloon Ablation (see below for more information).


What is "Nerve Stimulation" and how does Nerve Stimulation help patients?

There are various types of nerve stimulation, each with its own protocols for treating various ailments and conditions.

One type of nerve stimulation is for treating people with moderate to severe depression.  Depression can be a very serious and life-threatening condition that may require life-long management and treatment.  Treating depression may sometimes have a lower than hoped for success rate and estimates indicate that more than half of all patients with depression have relapses. Anti-depressant drugs and medication may lessen symptoms but may not relieve all of the symptoms in some patients.

Seizures also do not always respond to treatment. Some patients have tried two or more medications and still have seizures, as well as side effects from the drugs, both of which affect their quality of life.

Vagus nerve stimulators are a small medial device that are implanted under the skin of the chest.  A very small wire runs to the patient's vagus nerve, which is then stimulated by the device, in the same manner a pacemaker works.  In general, patients with depression normally experience an improvement in alertness, energy. memory, their depression improves as a result. better mood. These quality-of-life benefits improve over time. 

Vagus nerve stimulators, in general, have proven to be a safe and effective way to control seizures and lessen the severity of depression.   Because vagus nerve stimulators are used, drugs are usually not required, and there are no side effects that are associated with anti-depressant or seizure-control medications.

See:  www.DepressionHelp.net  for more information about depression.


What is Overactive Bladder & Overactive Bladder Syndrome?

Overactive Bladder Syndrome, also known as Female Urinary Incontinence or Stress Urinary Incontinence, is the loss of bladder control. 

Symptoms of Overactive Bladder Syndrome can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it is more common in women who have had at least one vaginal childbirth, and becomes even more of a problem during menopause. 

Overactive Bladder Syndrome happens when genitourinary muscles are too weak or too active. If the muscles that keep your bladder closed are weak, you may have accidents when you sneeze, laugh or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may feel a strong urge to go to the bathroom when you have little urine in your bladder. There are other causes of Overactive Bladder Syndrome, including nerve damage and pelvic organ prolapse.

Doctors in Genitourinary Medicine are specialists in Overactive Bladder Syndrome.  Treatments for Overactive Bladder Syndrome depends on the type of problem you have and what best fits your lifestyle. It may include simple exercises, medicines, special devices or procedures prescribed by your doctor, or surgery.


What are Pantiliners?

Pantiliners, also referred to as; 

* Inipads - our revolutionary menstrual pad and tampon alternative!
* sanitary pads
* sanitary towels
* Mini-menstrual pads
* Maxi pads
* Menstrual pads
* Menstruation pads
* Pantiliners
* Pantishields
* Pantyliners
* Pantyshields

are thin, absorbent cotton, cloth or other material(s) used in feminine hygiene

Pantiliners are not your mother's bulky thick pads and sanitary napkins of 30 - 40 years ago!  Pantiliners make periods much more comfortable and convenient compared to the tick, bulky pads your mother used to wear!  Pantiliners, like sanitary napkins worn inside a woman's panties, so that the pantiliner is placed or wedged next to the vulva, specifically centered in front of the opening to the vagina.

Pantiliners are used for many feminine hygiene needs, including; absorbing a woman's daily vaginal discharge, periods of light light menstrual flow such as on day one or day 5 of menstruation, in conjunction with tampons for heavier menstrual flow days, menstrual cup backup, periods for when there is menstrual spotting and female urinary incontinence.

Pantiliners resemble other typess of feminine hygiene - specifically sanitary napkins in that Pantiliners are much thinner and often narrower than types of pads. As a result they absorb much less liquid than pads - making them ideal for light discharge and everyday cleanliness. They are generally unsuitable for menstruation of medium to heavy flow, which require them to be changed more often.

Pantiliners are produced in a wide assortment of absorbencies, sizes, shapes and scents, including no-scent for women with allergies.  Pantiliners even come in " thong" styles for fitting inside thong-style panties! 


What is
Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Pelvic Organ Prolapse also referred to as Pelvic Prolapse, is a very common condition, particularly among older women. It's estimated that half of women who have children will experience some form of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in later life. Many women, particularly because they may no longer be sexually active, and fail to continue receiving their annual pelvic exams, don't seek help from their doctor. Therefore, the actual number of women affected by Pelvic Organ Prolapse is unknown. 

Pelvic Organ Prolapse may also be called; genital prolapse, pelvic relaxation, Pelvic Prolapse, uterine prolapse, uterovaginal prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, urogenital prolapse, vaginal relaxation or vaginal vault prolapse.


What are the symptoms that indicate a woman is suffering from 
Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Pelvic Organ Prolapse is a real, common and treatable problem. Consider this:

About half of all women over age 50 suffer from some degree of
Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

One in 10 women undergo surgery for
Pelvic Organ Prolapse before they reach the age of 80.

____________________________________

Pelvic Organ Prolapse
www.PelvicOrganProlapse.com

Advertise Your  Product, Company or Medical Practice 
at the BEST website address for Pelvic Organ Prolapse!



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What is Pelvic Prolapse?

Pelvic Prolapse is another term used for "Pelvic Organ Prolapse."  Pelvic Prolapse is a very common condition, particularly among older women. It's estimated that half of women who have children will experience some form of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in later life. Many women, particularly because they may no longer be sexually active, and fail to continue receiving their annual pelvic exams, don't seek help from their doctor. Therefore, the actual number of women affected by Pelvic Organ Prolapse is unknown. 

Pelvic Prolapse may also be called; genital prolapse, pelvic relaxation, pelvic prolapse, uterine prolapse, uterovaginal prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, urogenital prolapse or vaginal vault prolapse.


What are the symptoms that indicate a woman is suffering from
Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Pelvic Organ Prolapse is a real, common and treatable problem. Consider this:

About half of all women over age 50 suffer from some degree of
Pelvic Organ Prolapse.  One in 10 women undergo surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse by age 80.


What is
Pelvic Reconstruction?

Pelvic Reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed by gynecologists or uro-gynecologies to repair Pelvic Organ Prolapse and vaginal vault prolapse, among types of prolapse, and to correct the problem(s) and relieve the symptoms. 

Typically, Pelvic Reconstruction is performed vaginally and uses an implant to reinforce the strength of the weakened pelvic tissues. 

What is Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)?

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms related to menstruation and the menstrual cycle. PMS symptoms occur in the week or two weeks before your period (menstruation or monthly bleeding). The symptoms usually go away after your period starts. Premenstrual Syndrome may interfere with your normal activities at home, school, or work. Menopause, when monthly periods stop, brings an end to Premenstrual Syndrome

The causes of Premenstrual Syndrome are not yet clear. Some women may be more sensitive than others to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Stress does not seem to cause PMS, but may make it worse. Premenstrual Syndrome can affect menstruating women of any age. 

Premenstrual Syndrome often includes both physical and emotional symptoms. Diagnosis of PMS is usually based on your symptoms, when they occur, and how much they affect your life.


What are the symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

Premenstrual Syndrome often includes both physical and emotional symptoms. Common symptoms are: 

* breast swelling and tenderness 

* fatigue and trouble sleeping 

* upset stomach, bloating, constipation or diarrhea 

* headache 

* appetite changes or food cravings 

* joint or muscle pain 

* tension, irritability, mood swings, or crying spells 

* anxiety or depression 

* trouble concentrating or remembering. 

Symptoms vary from one woman to another. If you think you have Premenstrual Syndrome, try keeping track of your symptoms for several menstrual cycles. You can use a calendar to note which symptoms you are having on which days of your cycle, and how bad the symptoms are. If you seek medical care for your PMS, having this kind of record is helpful. 


How common is Premenstrual Syndrome?


Estimates of the percentage of women affected by Premenstrual Syndrome vary widely. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, up to 40 percent of menstruating women report some symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome. Most of these women have symptoms that are fairly mild and do not need treatment. Some women (perhaps five to ten percent of menstruating women) have a more severe form of PMS. 


What treatments are available for Premenstrual Syndrome?

 
Many treatments have been tried for easing the symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome. However, no treatment has been found that works for everyone. A combination of lifestyle changes and other treatment may be needed. If your PMS is not so bad that you need medical help, a healthier lifestyle may help you feel better and cope with symptoms. 

Adopt a healthier way of life. Exercise regularly, get enough sleep, choose healthy foods, don't smoke, and find ways to manage stress in your life.

Try avoiding excess salt, sugary foods, caffeine, and alcohol, especially when you are having PMS symptoms. 

Be sure that you are getting enough vitamins and minerals. Take a multivitamin every day that includes 400 micrograms of folic acid. A calcium supplement with vitamin D can help keep bones strong and may help with PMS symptoms. 

In more severe cases, drugs such as diuretics, ibuprofen, birth control pills, or antidepressants may be used. 

Although Premenstrual Syndrome does not seem to be related to abnormal hormone levels, some women respond to hormonal treatment. For example, one approach has been to use drugs such as birth control pills to stop ovulation from occurring. There is evidence that a brain chemical, serotonin, plays a role in severe forms of PMS. Antidepressants that alter serotonin in the body have been shown to help many women with severe PMS.


What is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)?

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder or PMDD, is a severe, disabling form of PMS. In PMDD, the main symptoms are mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, tension, and persistent anger or irritability. These severe symptoms lead to problems with relationships and carrying out normal activities. Women with PMDD usually also have physical symptoms, such as headache, joint and muscle pain, lack of energy, bloating and breast tenderness. According to the American Psychiatric Association, a woman must have at least five of the typical symptoms to be diagnosed with PMDD. The symptoms must occur during the two weeks before her period and go away when bleeding begins. 

Research has shown that antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can help many women with PMDD. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two such medications to date for treatment of PMDD - sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Sarafem).


What is a Prolapsed Uterus?

A Prolapsed Uterus is a very serious medical condition which normally requires the immediate attention of a woman's ob-gyn or family medical provider. A Prolapsed Uterus refers to a "collapsed" uterus, or descended uterus, or other change in the position of the uterus in relation to the surrounding structures within the pelvis. The pelvis contains many soft tissue structures vital to normal body functions, supported primarily by the diaphragms, layers of muscles, fibrous coverings called fasciae, and various ligaments and tendons. These soft tissues of the pelvis derive their ultimate support from the bony pelvis. 

A woman's uterus is held in place within her pelvis by a number of ligaments, muscles and connecting tissues.  During childbirth, particularly those women that experience either difficult labor and delivery, or extended L&D, these muscles and connecting tissues may weaken and no longer provide the support to keep her uterus in its' proper pelvic location. As women age, those with weakened muscles and ligaments of the uterus, now have the additional loss of estrogen, which may lead to her uterus  collapsing or "falling" into her vagina.  This is then referred to as a "prolapsed uterus."

Conditions that may also contribute to a prolapsed uterus include being overweight, hysterectomy/removal of the uterus, and any other surgeries that affect the ligaments, muscles or connecting tissues of a woman's uterus.

A prolapsed uterus may be one of three types, depending on the severity:

• First-degree prolapse occurs when the uterus sags downward into the upper vagina.

• Second-degree prolapse occurs when the cervix is at or near the outside of the vagina.

• Third-degree prolapse (sometimes referred to as total prolapse) occurs when the entire uterus extends outside the vagina.

What are the symptoms of a woman with a prolapsed uterus?
  
*  Painful sexual intercourse
*  Pain in the lower back
*  Problems with urination and/or bowel movement 
*  Problems with standing and walking
*  The feeling of "fullness" in the pelvis - also commonly referred to "pressure" in the pelvis.
*  The feeling as if she is sitting on a small ball
*  Women with a prolapsed uterus also describe the feeling that it feels like something is coming out of her vagina.

A woman with suspected prolapsed uterus should see her doctor if she has any of the following symptoms:

*  You feel your cervix next to, or closer to your vaginal opening.
*  You feel pressure in your vagina, or the feeling that something is coming, or falling out of your vagina.
*  You suffer from persistent pain, pressure or discomfort from female urinary incontinence.
*  You suffer from urinary "dribbling" when urinating.
*  You have frequent rectal urgency or need for having a bowel movement.
*  You have continuing or unexplained (low) back pain.
*  You have any problems or difficulty with; bowel movements, standing, urinating, walking, or urination

A woman with suspected prolapsed uterus should see her doctor IMMEDIATELY, if she experiences the following symptoms:

*  An obstruction, pain or any difficulties with bowel movements or urinating.
*  A complete prolapsed uterus when her uterus falls out from her vagina.


What Is Sacral Colpopexy (Sacrocolpopexy)?

Sacral Colpopexy, also referred to as Sacrocolpopexy, is the preferred surgical procedure for treating and correcting Vaginal Vault Prolapse as well as uterine suspension and vaginal vault suspension, and with excellent results. 

Sacral Colpopexy has a very high rate of success  and the surgical procedure involves suturing a synthetic mesh that connects and supports the vagina to the sacrum, or tailbone. The Sacral Colpopexy operation is performed from the abdomen to support the vagina to the ligament on the spine (after previous or present surgery to remove the uterus) by using a synthetic mesh.


Why Is
Sacral Colpopexy Performed? 

Sacral Colpopexy is performed to treat severe protrusion or bulge(s) of the vagina after removal of the uterus.

A woman's vagina that has one or more of these vaginal protrusion(s) may experience one or more of the following:

• The vaginal lump/bulge or protrusion feels uncomfortable or causes pain.  
• Difficulty with urination (e.g. unable to completely empty the bladder) 
• Bowel difficulties (e.g. constipation, incomplete emptying of bowels) 
• Pain 
• Infection 
• Bleeding 

The objective of the
Sacral Colpopexy operation is to relieve the woman's symptoms and to restore her vagina and her vaginal anatomy (as much as possible) and recover her sexual function.


Are there any risks associated with
Sacral Colpopexy surgery? 

Sacral Colpopexy surgery is a very common and relatively safe operation with excellent prognosis and outcomes.  However, like any surgical procedure, there are complications which may occur. 

Possible complications from Sacral Colpopexy surgery may include:

• Bleeding 
• Infection 
• Injury to surrounding tissues (e.g. nerve or blood vessels, ureter, intestines) 
• Formation of blood clot(s) in the legs or lungs 
• Recurrence of problem
• Slow return of bowel or bladder function 
• Erosion of synthetic material through vaginal mucosa 


What Happens Before
Sacral Colpopexy Surgery? 

1. Blood tests, electrocardiography (ECG) and chest X-ray may be done to ensure that you are in optimal health for
Sacral Colpopexy surgery. 

2. Your doctor may prescribe oral or vaginal estrogen (hormone) if you are already menopausal. It is important to comply with this medication as it ensures that your vaginal tissues are optimal for surgery and healing. 

3. You will be admitted to the hospital one day before Sacral Colpopexy surgery. 

4. You will be given preparations to clear your bowels.

5.  Your pubic hair surrounding your vagina and on your vulva will be shaved. 

6. You will not be allowed to eat or drink after midnight on the day before the surgery. 

7. All your medical and surgical conditions, if any, must be made known to the doctor and must be optimally controlled. 

8. If you are on aspirin, please keep your doctor informed. You must stop taking aspirin at least one week before
Sacral Colpopexy surgery. 


What happens during the
Sacral Colpopexy surgery? 

The surgery is done under general or regional anesthesia. The anesthesiologist will discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

An abdominal incision is made. The synthetic mesh is stitched to the posterior surface of the vagina and to the ligaments in front of the spine.

A tube / drain may be inserted into the abdomen to monitor the bleeding.

Another tube will be inserted into the urethra as there may be difficulty in urination after the
Sacral Colpopexy procedure.

Painkillers, laxatives and antibiotics would generally be prescribed after the procedure.


What happens after
Sacral Colpopexy surgery? 

1. Immediately after the operation, you may experience one or more of the following:

• Tiredness - You should rest and gradually increase your mobilization until you feel fit to return to your normal activities. 

• Discomfort - In the lower part of the abdomen, over the incision. This is to be expected and painkillers should help to relieve the discomfort. 

• Vaginal bleeding - Mild to moderate amount of reddish watery discharge after surgery is quite normal. You will need to wear a menstrual pad during the recovery period, but you will not be permitted to use tampons for obvious reasons.

2. One day after surgery, you will usually be allowed to drink and eat. You will be encouraged to move around. Blood chemistries and normal follow-up visits will be performed. 

3. The catheter that was placed in your urethra is usually removed the day after surgery. The drain is usually removed two days after the operation.

4. You may be discharged on the third or fourth day after surgery if the doctor is pleased with your progress and the outcome of the Sacral Colpopexy procedure. 

5. You should refrain from:

• Strenuous exercise for 2 months. You may return to normal activity after that, or upon clearance by your doctor. 

• Using tampons, douching, sexual intercourse and driving for 4 weeks. 

• Carrying heavy weights (> 10 pounds) for 6-8 weeks after
Sacral Colpopexy surgery.

6. You should (immediately) return to the hospital or notify your doctor if you notic any of the following:

• Heavy vaginal bleeding 
• Foul smelling vaginal discharge 
• Severe abdominal distension and / or pain not relieved by painkillers 
• High fever 
• Pain associated with passing urine 
• Difficulty in passing urine 
• Constipation 

Follow-up doctor visits after
Sacral Colpopexy surgery 

You will be examined by your doctor (at your doctor's office) at approximately; 2 weeks, 4 weeks, six months and and one year after
Sacral Colpopexy surgery. 

It is important to keep your follow-up appointments to ensure the best possible results.


Follow-up doctor visits after Sacral Colpopexy surgery 

You will be examined by your doctor (at your doctor's office) at approximately; 2 weeks, 4 weeks, six months and and one year after
Sacral Colpopexy surgery. 

It is important to keep your follow-up appointments to ensure the best possible results.


What Is Sacrocolpopexy (Sacral Colpopexy)?

Sacrocolpopexy, also referred to as Sacral Colpopexy, is the preferred surgical procedure for treating and correcting Vaginal Vault Prolapse as well as uterine suspension and vaginal vault suspension, and with excellent results. 

Sacrocolpopexy has a very high rate of success  and the surgical procedure involves suturing a synthetic mesh that connects and supports the vagina to the sacrum, or tailbone. The Sacrocolpopexy operation is performed from the abdomen to support the vagina to the ligament on the spine (after previous or present surgery to remove the uterus) by using a synthetic mesh.


Why Is
Sacrocolpopexy
Performed? 

Sacrocolpopexy is performed to treat severe protrusion or bulge(s) of the vagina after removal of the uterus.

A woman's vagina that has one or more of these vaginal protrusion(s) may experience one or more of the following:

• The vaginal lump/bulge or protrusion feels uncomfortable or causes pain.  
• Difficulty with urination (e.g. unable to completely empty the bladder) 
• Bowel difficulties (e.g. constipation, incomplete emptying of bowels) 
• Pain 
• Infection 
• Bleeding 

The objective of the
Sacrocolpopexy operation is to relieve the woman's symptoms and to restore her vagina and her vaginal anatomy (as much as possible) and recover her sexual function.


Are there any risks associated with
Sacrocolpopexy surgery? 

Sacrocolpopexy surgery is a very common and relatively safe operation with excellent prognosis and outcomes.  However, like any surgical procedure, there are complications which may occur. 

Possible complications from Sacrocolpopexy surgery may include:

• Bleeding 
• Infection 
• Injury to surrounding tissues (e.g. nerve or blood vessels, ureter, intestines) 
• Formation of blood clot(s) in the legs or lungs 
• Recurrence of problem
• Slow return of bowel or bladder function 
• Erosion of synthetic material through vaginal mucosa 


What Happens Before
Sacrocolpopexy Surgery? 

1. Blood tests, electrocardiography (ECG) and chest X-ray may be done to ensure that you are in optimal health for
Sacrocolpopexy surgery. 

2. Your doctor may prescribe oral or vaginal estrogen (hormone) if you are already menopausal. It is important to comply with this medication as it ensures that your vaginal tissues are optimal for surgery and healing. 

3. You will be admitted to the hospital one day before Sacrocolpopexy surgery. 

4. You will be given preparations to clear your bowels.

5.  Your pubic hair surrounding your vagina and on your vulva will be shaved. 

6. You will not be allowed to eat or drink after midnight on the day before the surgery. 

7. All your medical and surgical conditions, if any, must be made known to the doctor and must be optimally controlled. 

8. If you are on aspirin, please keep your doctor informed. You must stop taking aspirin at least one week before
Sacrocolpopexy surgery. 


What happens during the
Sacrocolpopexy surgery? 

The surgery is done under general or regional anesthesia. The anesthesiologist will discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

An abdominal incision is made. The synthetic mesh is stitched to the posterior surface of the vagina and to the ligaments in front of the spine.

A tube / drain may be inserted into the abdomen to monitor the bleeding.

Another tube will be inserted into the urethra as there may be difficulty in urination after the
Sacrocolpopexy procedure.

Painkillers, laxatives and antibiotics would generally be prescribed after the procedure.


What happens after
Sacrocolpopexy surgery? 

1. Immediately after the operation, you may experience one or more of the following:

• Tiredness - You should rest and gradually increase your mobilization until you feel fit to return to your normal activities. 

• Discomfort - In the lower part of the abdomen, over the incision. This is to be expected and painkillers should help to relieve the discomfort. 

• Vaginal bleeding - Mild to moderate amount of reddish watery discharge after surgery is quite normal. You will need to wear a menstrual pad during the recovery period, but you will not be permitted to use tampons for obvious reasons.

2. One day after surgery, you will usually be allowed to drink and eat. You will be encouraged to move around. Blood chemistries and normal follow-up visits will be performed. 

3. The catheter that was placed in your urethra is usually removed the day after surgery. The drain is usually removed two days after the operation.

4. You may be discharged on the third or fourth day after surgery if the doctor is pleased with your progress and the outcome of the Sacrocolpopexy procedure. 

5. You should refrain from:

• Strenuous exercise for 2 months. You may return to normal activity after that, or upon clearance by your doctor. 

• Using tampons, douching, sexual intercourse and driving for 4 weeks. 

• Carrying heavy weights (> 10 pounds) for 6-8 weeks after
Sacrocolpopexy surgery.

6. You should (immediately) return to the hospital or notify your doctor if you notic any of the following:

• Heavy vaginal bleeding 
• Foul smelling vaginal discharge 
• Severe abdominal distension and / or pain not relieved by painkillers 
• High fever 
• Pain associated with passing urine 
• Difficulty in passing urine 
• Constipation 

Follow-up doctor visits after
Sacrocolpopexy surgery 

You will be examined by your doctor (at your doctor's office) at approximately; 2 weeks, 4 weeks, six months and and one year after
Sacrocolpopexy surgery. 

It is important to keep your follow-up appointments to ensure the best possible results.


Follow-up doctor visits after Sacrocolpopexy surgery 

You will be examined by your doctor (at your doctor's office) at approximately; 2 weeks, 4 weeks, six months and and one year after
Sacrocolpopexy surgery. 

It is important to keep your follow-up appointments to ensure the best possible results.


What are Sanitary Napkins and how do they work?


Sanitary napkins, also referred to as; 

* Inipads - our revolutionary menstrual pad and tampon alternative!
* sanitary pads
* sanitary towels
* Mini-menstrual pads
* Maxi pads
* Menstrual pads
* Menstruation pads
* Pantiliners

and are absorbent items worn inside a menstruating woman's panties, next to her vulva to absorb the menstrual blood coming from the vagina, each month during her monthly menstrual period.

Sanitary Napkins are also worn by women that are recovering from vulvo vaginal surgery as well as from post birth bleeding, or whenever necessary to absorb blood flowing from a woman's vagina.

Sanitary napkins come in different shapes, styles, absorbencies, deodorant, non-deodorant, as well as thin pantiliners for light days and pads, for heavy days of menstrual bleeding. All sanitary napkins, pads and pantiliners are made with removable strips of paper that reveal adhesive tape that is made to stick to your panties.  Other pads and pantiliners have wrap-around "wings" that wrap under your panties to keep it from moving or "bunching."

Some young ladies don't like the feeling of sitting on a pad and may choose tampons and/or pantiliners on their heavy days. Many of the pantiliners offered today absorb as much menstrual blood as the thick sanitary napkins and pads offered 20 years ago!


What is Staphylococcus Aureus?

Staphylococcus Aureus was first discovered in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1880 by Dr. Alexander Ogston who was a surgeon. 

Every year, as many as 500,000 patients contract Staphylococcus Aureus during their stay in America's hospitals.

Staphylococcus Aureus, also known as Staph Aureus or S. Aureus, means the "golden cluster seed" or "the seed gold." It is also known as golden staph and is the most common cause of staph infections. 

Staphylococcus Aureus is found in humans the following:

It has been shown that 20% of the population are long-term carriers of Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus Aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections, such 
as pimples, impetigo (may also be caused by Streptococcus pyogenes), boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome and abscesses.

Staphylococcus Aureus has been linked to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and septicemia. 

Staphylococcus Aureus remains one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing postsurgical wound infections. 


What is Thermal Balloon Ablation?

Thermal Balloon Ablation, also known as "Thermal Balloon Ablation" - is a minor surgical that is similar to "endometrial ablation" in that is destroys the lining of of a woman's uterus using a balloon that is inserted through the vagina, then through the cervical opening, or os. The balloon, once in place and properly positioned in the uterus, is then filled with a fluid and then heated. The heat - which isn't that hot, and never felt by the patient undergoing the therapy - then destroys the lining of the uterus. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis taking less than 30 minutes once the procedure begins.

Other types of endometrial ablation procedures inclued; electrical rent, freezing, laser, electrical rent and radiofrequency.

Side effects from thermal balloon ablation could possibly include vaginal discharge (lasting days or weeks), nausea and vomiting.

Women considering thermal balloon ablation should know that, like endometrial ablation, permanently destroys the lining of the uterus, making it nearly impossible to become pregnant. 


What is a "
Tilted Uterus"?

A "tilted uterus," which is also referred to as either a "tipped uterus" or a "retroverted uterus" is diagnosed when a physician notices that the woman's uterus is in a slightly backwards or "tilted" position. 

Normally, a woman's uterus is located in a straight and vertical position in reference to her pelvis - and sometimes the uterus is tilted slightly forward. 

A tilted uterus can make conception and pregnancy more difficult.

Having a tilted uterus is not that uncommon. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology states that about 20% of all women have a tilted uterus

And, not all women that have a tilted uterus will have difficulty when trying to conceive. Many women will get pregnant with no trouble and may not have any idea that they even had a tilted uterus until their obstetrician informs them.


What is Toxic Shock Syndrome?

Toxic Shock Syndrome is a rare infection that can happen during a woman's period. The symptoms include a sudden fever of over 101 degrees or more, diarrhea (the runs), vomiting (throwing up), muscle aches and a sunburn-like rash. If you have these symptoms during you period, see a doctor right away.

To help prevent Toxic Shock Syndrome you should follow these guidelines:

1. Wash your hands before unwrapping and placing a new tampon in your vagina.

2. Never use super-absorbent or deodorant tampons.

3. Change your tampon at least every 4-6 hours (read the tampon manufacturers information inside the box).

4. Do not use tampons all the time and switch to a pad for part of each day.

5. Do not use a birth control sponge or diaphragm during your period. During your period it is preferable to use other methods such as condoms and/or foam.

There are allegations that tampons made from rayon, or cotton with rayon, may cause or be a contributing factor to Toxic Shock Syndrome as well as vaginal dryness or ulcerations of vaginal tissues.

Toxic Shock Syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. (Different bacterial toxins may cause Toxic Shock Syndrome, depending on the situation, but most often streptococci and staphylococci are responsible.) The number of reported Toxic Shock Syndrome cases has decreased significantly in recent years.

Approximately half the cases of Toxic Shock Syndrome reported today are associated with tampon use during menstruation, usually in young women.

Toxic Shock Syndrome also occurs in children, men, and non-menstruating women. In 1997, only five confirmed menstrual-related Toxic Shock Syndrome cases were reported, compared with 814 cases in 1980 [according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)].

Although scientists have recognized an association between Toxic Shock Syndrome and tampon use, the exact connection remains unclear. Research conducted by the CDC suggested that use of some high absorbency tampons increased the risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome in menstruating women. A few specific tampon designs and high absorbency tampon materials were also found to have some association with increased risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome. These products and materials are no longer used in tampons sold in the U.S. Tampons made with rayon do not appear to have a higher risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome than cotton tampons of similar absorbency.

Vaginal dryness and ulcerations may occur when women use tampons more absorbent than needed for the amount of their menstrual flow. Ulcerations have also been reported in women using tampons between menstrual periods to try to control excessive vaginal discharge or abnormal bleeding. Women may avoid problems by choosing a tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to control menstrual flow and using tampons only during active menstruation.

To help women compare absorbency from brand to brand, FDA requires that manufacturers measure absorbency using a standard method and describe absorbency on the package using standardized terms. Thus, the terms "junior," "regular," "super," and "super plus," always describe a specific range of tampon absorbency regardless of the brand.


What is a Trachelectomy?


A trachelectomy, also referred to as a cervicectomy, is the surgical removal of the cervix.

In this surgery, the uterus itself is saved or preserved, and therefore this type of surgery preserves a woman's chance of becoming pregnant and having children. The trachelectomy surgical alternative - as opposed to the more radical hysterectomy which removes the uterus in addition to the cervix - is typically elected by younger women with early stage cervical cancer. 


What is a "Transobturator Sling"?

The Transobturator Sling is another minimally-invasive surgical procedure that is performed to help women with Female Stress Urinary Incontinence. 

The Transobturator Sling surgery is performed by the doctor placing a narrow strip of tape or mesh in a position that provides support for the woman's urethra. The Transobturator Sling procedure eliminates some of the potential complications that come about from other Sling type surgical procedures that blindly passes a large needle carrier through the retropubic space.


What is "Uterine Balloon Therapy"?

"Uterine Balloon Therapy" - also known as "Thermal Balloon Ablation" - is a minor surgical procedure that destroys the lining of of a woman's uterus using a balloon that is inserted through the vagina, then through the cervical opening, or os. The balloon, once in place and properly positioned in the uterus, is then filled with a fluid and then heated. The heat - which isn't that hot, and never felt by the patient undergoing the therapy - then destroys the lining of the uterus.


How is Uterine Balloon Therapy performed?

Uterine Balloon Therapy is typically performed on an out-patient basis and requires either light general anesthesia or local anaesthesia.

Uterine Balloon Therapy involves inserting a balloon catheter through the vagina, then through the cervix and into the uterus. The balloon is then filled with sterile liquid so that it expands and fills the contours of the woman's uterus. The liquid inside the balloon is then heated and maintained at 87°C for 8 minutes which scalds and permanently destroys the endometrial lining of the uterus.

After 8 minutes, the liquid inside the uterine balloon is withdrawn and then the balloon catheter is deflated and removed back out of the uterus and vagina.

The lining of the uterus (endometrium) will gradually shed away (through the vagina - like a period) over the following 2 to 3 weeks.. The woman will experience a vaginal, bloodstained discharge over the next 2-3 weeks.

Almost all patients are discharged the same day after the Uterine Balloon Therapy procedure and may experience uterine cramps - very similar to menstrual cramps, for a few hours to 1-2 days at most.

Who are candidates for Uterine Balloon Therapy?

Women who have been suffering from Patients suffering from Menorrhagia, or excessive menstrual bleeding due to benign causes, are excellent candidates for Uterine Balloon Therapy.

The overall success rate for women that undergo Uterine Balloon Therapy is around 80% and significantly reduces menstrual bleeding for these women.

However, Uterine Balloon Therapy is not a suitable therapy for patients with submucous fibroids or patients with large and irregular uterine cavities.

In addition, this procedure is NOT for patients who have not completed their family planning and intend to have children as becoming pregnant after Uterine Balloon Therapy can be life-threatening.


Benefits of Uterine Balloon Therapy


Uterine Balloon Therapy has the distinct advantage of being handled on an outpatient basis and with a very low risk for complications.

In addition, there is no effect on a woman's hormone balance and hormonal functioning. Therefore, she will not require hormone replacement therapy unlike in the case of a hysterectomy with removal of ovaries.

Recent studies indicate that most women find that Uterine Balloon Therapy met or exceeded their expectations and is their preferred treatment for menorrhagia. This is primarily due to the fact as they get to keep their uterus, as opposed to a hysterectomy, which removes the uterus and may lead to other complications in the future, including Pelvic Organ Prolapse.


What is "
Uterine Suspension"?

Uterine Suspension is a surgical procedure that is used to relieve pelvic pain or dyspareunia (painful intercourse) when the pain is thought to be the result of a "tilted uterus," also referred to as; 

* uterine retroversion 
* tipped uterus 
* retroverted uterus

Generally, there are two methods that are used to accomplish Uterine Suspension surgery; 

1. laparotomy - which requires a large abdominal incision

or 

2. laparoscopy - which uses much smaller, more strategically placed incisions.


Uterine Suspension
is sometimes used to increase fertility although this is very controversial and has never really been shown to increase one’s chances of becoming pregnant. 


What conditions will
Uterine Suspension treat? 

Uterine Suspension is used to treat pelvic pain and dyspareunia (painful intercourse). It is used to correct the position of a uterus that has tilted away from the midline and toward the back. 

Sometimes, before Uterine Suspension surgery, the doctor may ask his patient to try a vaginal pessary in an attempt to correct uterine position. 

If the vaginal pessary does not relieve the pain, then Uterine Suspension surgery may be the next best course of action.


What is Uterovaginal Prolapse?

Uterovaginal Prolapse is also known by other medical terms, including; Pelvic Organ Prolapse, genital prolapse, pelvic relaxation, Pelvic Prolapse, uterine prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, urogenital prolapse, vaginal relaxation or vaginal vault prolapse

Uterovaginal Prolapse may center in the area known as the "vaginal vault."  The vaginal vault is the area at the top of the vagina, next to and adjacent to the cervix. It can only “fall” or descend downwards toward the vaginal "introitus" or the entrance of the vagina, after a woman's womb has been removed (hysterectomy). Vaginal Vault Prolapse - also referred to as vaginal prolapse - occurs in about 15% of women who have had a hysterectomy for uterine prolapse, and in about 1% of women who have had a hysterectomy for other reasons. 

Vaginal Vault Suspension is a surgical procedure that may be selected to correct/repair Vaginal Vault Prolapse.


What is Vaginal Dryness?

Vaginal dryness is one of the most distressing, and painful problems a woman faces.  Vaginal dryness occurs when the natural vagina secretions decreases within the vagina. The amount of vaginal moisture varies throughout a woman's monthly menstrual cycle. Vaginal dryness is particularly problematical as a woman enters and becomes menopausal.


Don't Neglect your Vaginal Hygiene!

Proper vaginal hygiene is essential for optimum health

Vaginal hygiene is an area that focuses its studies, resources, and recommended products on proper vaginal hygiene, and overcoming vaginal hygiene problems.

Whether you are concerned about menstruation, whether you should consider douching, vaginal odors, vaginal dryness, menstrual odors during menstruation, or general feminine hygiene information, this site is for you.


What is a "Vaginal Moisturizer"?

A vaginal moisturizer is needed by most women to overcome vaginal dryness.

Vaginal moisturizers, provided by numerous companies, and a variety of brand names, are products designed to relieve the pain and discomfort of vaginal dryness. These products are applied or inserted, into the vagina, one or more times per day, depending on the amount of vaginal dryness she may be experiencing.

A vaginal moisturizer may or may not be a vaginal lubricant. Vaginal lubricants are normally used as an aid for intercourse and used on a short-term basis to help a woman that is not able to produce enough vaginal moisture to permit her to comfortably (and painlessly) engage in intercourse.

A menstruating woman's vaginal moisture changes from day to day, and varies depending upon her hormones that control the production of vaginal moisture. A woman can experience vaginal dryness even during times of menstrual bleeding.


What is "Vaginal pH?"

The pH of a healthy vagina ranges from 3.8 to 4.5.  pH is a way to describe how acidic a substance is. It is given by a number on a scale of 1-14. The lower the number, the more acidic the substance.  The pH of the vagina can be obtained either in the doctor's office or at home with a vaginal pH test kit which determines how acidic or alkaline the vagina is when the vaginal pH test is conducted.  Knowing your vagina's pH is very important for optimum vaginal health. When your vagina's pH is within the 3.8 to 4.5 range, there is a healthy balance of vaginal flora or bacteria that keeps the vaginal yeast cells in check. When the vagina's pH is out of this health pH range of 3.8 to 4.5, the vagina's healthy flora decreases and the amounts of bad bacteria increases, upsetting the natural balance of the vagina.  The end result is vaginal odor and vaginal yeast infections.

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What is a Vaginal pH Test?

A vaginal pH test measures the pH of your vagina and the vaginal secretions/discharge. 


Why should I know my
Vaginal pH?

The vaginal pH test will help your doctor determine if your vaginal symptoms (i.e., itching, burning, unpleasant odor, or unusual discharge) are likely caused by an infection that needs medical treatment. The test is not intended for HIV, chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, or group B streptococcus.


How accurate is the
Vaginal pH test? 

Home vaginal pH tests showed good agreement with a doctor's diagnosis. However, just because you find changes in your vaginal pH, doesn't always mean that you have a vaginal infection. pH changes also do not help or differentiate one type of infection from another. Your doctor diagnoses a vaginal infection by using a combination of: pH, microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge, amine odor, culture, wet preparation, and Gram stain.

Does a positive
Vaginal pH test mean you have a vaginal infection? 

No, a positive test (elevated pH) could occur for other reasons. If you detect elevated pH, you should see your doctor for further testing and treatment. There are no over-the-counter medications for treatment of an elevated vaginal pH.

If test results are negative, can you be sure that you do not have a vaginal infection? No, you may have an infection that does not show up in these tests. If you have no symptoms, your negative test could suggest the possibility of chemical, allergic, or other noninfectious irritation of the vagina. Or, a negative test could indicate the possibility of a yeast infection. You should see your doctor if you find changes in your vaginal pH or if you continue to have symptoms.

How is the
Vaginal pH test conducted? 

The doctor (or you, if done at home) places the pH paper inside your vagina and against one of the "walls" of the vagina for a few seconds.  He/she then compares the color of the pH paper to the color on the chart (provided with the test kit). The number on the chart for the color that best matches the color on the pH paper is the vaginal pH number.

Is the Vaginal pH home test similar to my doctor’s test? 

Yes. The home vaginal pH tests are practically identical to the ones sold to doctors. But your doctor can provide a more thorough assessment of your vaginal status through your history, physical exam, and other laboratory tests than you can using a single pH test in your home.


What is Vaginal Relaxation?

"Vaginal Relaxation" is a very common and embarrassing medical condition suffered by women who have undergone vaginal childbirth. Vaginal Relaxation is the medical term used by physicians, but most women and men refer to it as "loose vagina."

Vaginal Relaxation refers specifically to the loss of "vaginal tone" or vaginal tightness of the vagina as well as the vagina's supporting structures. 

The symptoms of Vaginal Relaxation are usually first recognized after a woman has her first vaginal childbirth.  However, the symptoms of Vaginal Relaxation become increasingly bothersome with each vaginal childbirth and worsen as a woman approaches menopause.

Some physicians and medical researchers believe that
Vaginal Relaxation is a "disruption" of the vagina and its supporting vaginal ligaments - rather than a "stretching" during vaginal childbirth, and that this then leads to "Vaginal Relaxation."


Do I have "
Vaginal Relaxation?" Symptoms of Vaginal Relaxation include:

Over 35 million American women (and their husbands) are suffering from Vaginal Relaxation or a loose vagina. Today, women can cure the problem and end the embarrassment of Vaginal Relaxation with a simple and very common medical procedure that takes less than one hour in a doctor's office to complete!


What is Vaginal Vault Prolapse?

The vaginal vault is the area at the top of the vagina, next to and adjacent to the cervix. It can only “fall” or descend downwards toward the vaginal "introitus" or the entrance of the vagina, after a woman's womb has been removed (hysterectomy).

Vaginal Vault Prolapse - also referred to as vaginal prolapse - occurs in about 15% of women who have had a hysterectomy for uterine prolapse, and in about 1% of women who have had a hysterectomy for other reasons.

Vaginal Vault Suspension is a surgical procedure that may be selected to correct/repair Vaginal Vault Prolapse.


What is the Vaginal Vault and Where is the Vaginal Vault Located?


The vagina has three "compartments" which include the anterior compartment or anterior vaginal wall, the middle compartment or cervix, and the posterior compartment or posterior vaginal wall. The vaginal vault is typically identified as the area at the top of the vagina, next to and adjacent to the cervix. The vaginal vault can fall/drop or descend down toward the vaginal introitus, or the entrance of the vagina, after a woman's uterus has been removed through a hysterectomy. 

Vaginal Vault Prolapse occurs in about 15% of women who have had a hysterectomy for uterine prolapse, and in about 1% of women who have had a hysterectomy for other reasons. Vaginal Vault Suspension is the surgical procedure that corrects and repairs Vaginal Vault Prolapse.


What is Vulvar Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is a cancer that forms in or on a woman's vulva.  

Vulvar cancer can be found in and around a woman's labia majora, labia minora, and/or clitoris, as well as within the vagina, which is then called vaginal cancer.  The cancer usually develops slowly over several years. In the beginning stages of vulvar cancer, precancerous cells grow on/within the vulva. This is called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), or dysplasia. Not all VIN cases turn into cancer, but it is best to treat it early and when diagnosed early, prognosis is good, with 90% (+) survival rates.

Typically, there are few if any indications or symptoms in the early stages of vulvar cancer.

However, you should IMMEDIATELY see your doctor if you notice any of the following from your vulvovaginal area:

NOTE:  Older women (over 40) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are a risk factor for vulvar cancer.

Treatment for vulvar cancer varies depending on your overall health, age and how advanced the cancer is. 

Treatment for vulvar cancer may include; laser therapy, surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.


What is "vulva health"?

Vulva health is a term that covers the many health issues of a woman's - or young girl's vulva.  This includes vulva care, gynecology, feminine hygiene, vaginal health/hygiene, menstruation, and the changes in women's vulvas from menarche to menopause.


What is Vulvovaginal Health?

Vulvovaginal is the medical term that is used for the study, health, medical treatment, diagnosis,  sanitation and treatment of the human female vulva and vagina. The pelvic examination of the vulvovaginal area includes inspection of the following specific external (and visible) parts; the clitoris, located at the top, the labia majora (outer "lips"), labia minora (inner "lips"), urethra, vestibule, vaginal introitus, and Bartholin ducts.

What Dads and Husbands as Well as Women and Mothers Need to Know About "Vulvovaginal" Health.

Let's face it, more and more dads, are being awarded primary and sometimes, sole-custody of their daughter(s). And, it's about time the courts recognize that dad's are just as capable, just as loving, just as nurturing, as a parent, than their ex-wives.  Many times, Dad's are even better at parenting.

Dads with daughters need to be able to communicate with their daughters when it comes to their daughter's vulvovaginal health and feminine hygiene needs.

While most young ladies do not have problems with vaginal dryness, vaginal odor / feminine odor or feminine itching, changes in their hormones as they approach their first menstrual period, and after, can sometimes cause these problems.

And when you are the only parent, you need to know how to help your daughter(s) with these health issues. By being informed, honest, and straight forward, you can be the trusted resource your daughter needs. And just as important, if you don't know the answer to her vulvovaginal health or feminine hygiene questions, tell her that you don't know and will find out and let her know.


What is
Vulvar Vestibulitis?

Vulvar Vestibulitis is a condition which causes redness and pain of the vestibule. 

Vulvar Vestibulitis or simply, "Vestibulitis," is an inflammation of the vulvovaginal skin and the mucous secreting glands found in and around the vulva. The mucous secreting glands are called the lesser vestibular glands.

Vulvar Vestibulitis may include all the area around the opening of the vagina but is normally seen in the lower part of the vaginal opening.

Vulvar Vestibulitis occurs in women of all ages. It can occur in women who are sexually active and also in women who have never been sexually active.

Many women with this problem have suffered physically and emotionally for months or years, have seen a number of physicians, and have tried many unsuccessful treatments in search of relief.


What are the signs and symptoms of
Vulvar Vestibulitis?


* Severe pain with pressure (for example: biking, exercise, tight fitting clothes ).

* Vaginal entry such as tampon use or intercourse.

* Burning, stinging, irritation, or raw sensation within the vestibular area.

* Vestibular redness

* The urge to urinate frequently or suddenly.


How is
Vulvar Vestibulitis diagnosed?

Your doctor or health care provider will examine the vulva and vestibule to identify the common skin changes seen with Vulvar Vestibulitis. Pain is usually felt if the vestibule area is touched with a cotton tipped applicator. A sample of your vaginal discharge is collected and tested to rule out infection.

What causes Vulvar Vestibulitis?

The exact cause is unknown, but many studies are being conducted to determine the cause of
Vulvar Vestibulitis.

The following factors have been associated with Vulvar Vestibulitis:

* HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
* Chronic Yeast Infections
* Chronic bacterial infections
* Chronic changes of pH (acid-base balance in the vagina)
* Chronic use of chemicals/irritants such as detergents, soaps, spermicides or lubricants.

What is the treatment for
Vulvar Vestibulitis?

Treatment may include any of the following:

* Follow the Guidelines for Vulvar Skin Care
* Steroid Ointments

How it is used: A thin layer is applied to the
vulvovaginal areas.

How it Works: Decreases redness, irritation, and burning. Caution: Use only as prescribed by your doctor. Overuse may result in thinning of the skin which will make your problem worse rather than helping it.

* Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) may be used in some cases as determined by the severity of the symptoms you have. TCA is a chemical that is used to destroy small areas of the irritated skin allowing new healthy skin to grow in its place.

* Interferon Injections are used to increase your body's response to infection.


Helpful treatment hints for Vulvar Vestibulitis:

* Vitamin A and D Ointment How it is used: Apply to the areas of discomfort.
How it Works: Protects the skin, decreases irritation, heals, and soothes.

* Lidocaine Gel may be prescribed after initial treatment.

How it is used: Apply lidocaine gel to the
vulvovaginal areas of discomfort.

How it Works: Numbs areas before intercourse.

Caution: After applying, wait until area becomes less sensitive before intercourse. Burning may occur for a short time ( 5 to 10 mins.) after the gel is applied.

* Witch Hazel Pads:

How it is used: Apply to the
vulvovaginal areas of discomfort.

How it Works: Decreases burning and irritation after intercourse and urinating.

* Cleansing Bottle - Pour plain luke-warm water over the vulva after urinating to remove urine from irritated area.

* Calcium Citrate Tablets- How it is used: Take orally 1200-1800mg. elemental calcium every day. How it Works: Thought to decrease certain crystals in the urine which may cause burning.

* Cranberry Juice How it is used: Drink an 8oz. glass every day.

How it Works: Increases the acid content of the urine to decrease bladder irritation.

* Limit High Oxalate Foods - May decrease amount of oxalate crystals in urine. Oxalate crystals cause urinary symptoms such as the urge to urinate frequently or suddenly.

* Baking Soda Soak- Soak in luke warm bath water with 4 to 5 tablespoons of baking soda to help soothe
vulvovaginal itching and burning. Soak 1 to 3 times a day for 10 to 15 minutes. If you are using a sitz bath, use 1 to 2 teaspoons of baking soda.


What is "
Vulvovaginitis"?

Vulvovaginitis is an inflammation of all or part of the external vulva (labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and/or entrance to the vagina) and the vagina.  The inflammation, redness and rubor - which is a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; are generally characterized by pain, swelling, redness and heat.

____________________________________

Understanding the Importance of Tampon Safety  
and Toxic Shock Syndrome


Historical Perspectives Reduced Incidence of Menstruation-related Toxic Shock Syndrome in the 
United States, 1980-1990

In May 1980, investigators reported to CDC 55 cases of Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) (1), a newly recognized illness characterized by high fever, sunburn-like rash, desquamation, hypotension, and abnormalities in multiple organ systems (2). Fifty-two (95%) of the reported cases occurred in women; onset of illness occurred during menstruation in 38 (95%) of the 40 women from whom menstrual history was obtained. National and state-based studies were initiated to determine risk factors for this disease. In addition, CDC established national surveillance to assess the magnitude of illness and follow trends in disease occurrence; 3295 definite cases have been reported since surveillance was established.

In June 1980, a follow-up report described three studies which detected an association between Toxic Shock Syndrome and the use of tampons (3). Case-control studies in Wisconsin and Utah and a national study by CDC indicated that women with Toxic Shock Syndrome were more likely to have used tampons than were controls. The CDC study also found that continuous use of tampons was associated with a higher risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome than was alternating use of tampons and other menstrual products. Subsequent studies established that risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome was substantially greater in women who used Rely brand tampons than in users of other brands and that risk increased with increased tampon absorbency (4-6). In September 1980, Rely tampons were voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer.

In 1980, 890 cases of  were reported, 812 (91%) of which were associated with menstruation. In 1989, 61 cases of Toxic Shock Syndrome were reported, 45 (74%) of which were menstrual. 

In 1980, 38 (5%) of 772 women with menstrual-related Toxic Shock Syndrome died; in 1988 and 1989, there were no deaths among women with menstrual-related Toxic Shock Syndrome. Reported by: Meningitis and Special Pathogens Br, Div of Bacterial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.

According to the grapevine in 12-year-old Jerri's North Carolina school, tampons not only cause AIDS, but also can be lost in a woman's body, never to be seen again.

If you're hooked into the Internet, you may notice that tampon tales such as these get more creative as they're passed around. The latest stories claim tampons are tainted with cancer-causing toxins and that rayon tampons are especially dangerous. Another Internet rumor suggests that manufacturers add asbestos to tampons to promote excessive bleeding and boost sales.

"It can be hard to tell what stuff is true," says Jerri.

The truth is that tampons can't get lost forever in a woman's body. Rayon tampons are as safe as cotton ones. And asbestos has never had anything to do with fibers that make up tampons.

"The only way asbestos could be connected to tampons would be through tampering," says Mel Stratmeyer, Ph.D., chief of the Food and Drug Administration's health sciences branch. "And we haven't received any reports of such tampering."

FDA regulates tampons as medical devices, and "we ensure that tampon design and materials are safe through a solid, scientifically valid pre-market review process," says Colin Pollard, chief of FDA's obstetrics and gynecology devices branch. Tampon manufacturers conduct a battery of safety studies, and tampons must pass through FDA review and clearance before they can be marketed.

FDA also regulates the absorbency ratings for tampons. While high levels of absorbency were initially linked to an infection called toxic shock syndrome (TSS), FDA recently proposed a rule to provide an absorbency term for 15- to 18-gram tampons (ultra absorbency) that may help women manage heavier menstrual flows. 

"Tampons with this absorbency are available in other countries with very low rates of toxic shock syndrome," explains Kimber Richter, M.D., deputy director of FDA's office of device evaluation. Toxic shock syndrome is the only disease with a proven association to tampon use, according to FDA and the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Any fear still surrounding tampon use likely dates from a time when toxic shock syndrome was first identified. About half of all cases occur in women using tampons, although the exact link between toxic shock syndrome and tampons remains unclear.

chart illustrating information in textTampons enjoyed a quiet history from 1933--when the first ones hit the market--until about 1980. That's when CDC noticed a sharp rise in the number of cases of toxic shock syndrome, a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the Staphylococcus Aureus bacterium. Experts believe the bacterium releases one or more toxins into the bloodstream.

Between October 1979 and May 1980, 55 cases of toxic shock syndrome and seven deaths were reported. Most were among women who experienced onset of illness within a week following their periods. The TSS epidemic reached its peak in 1980 with a total of 813 cases of menstrual-related toxic shock syndrome, including 38 deaths, according to CDC.

CDC carried out national and state-based studies to pinpoint toxic shock syndrome risk factors and used its national surveillance system to track trends. Research suggested one factor was the use of very highly absorbent tampons made from new materials.

Studies showed that women who used Proctor & Gamble's Rely tampons were at substantially greater risk for TSS than other tampon users. This brand consisted of polyester foam and a special type of highly absorbent cellulose, a combination no longer used in tampons. "Toxic shock syndrome was NOT only limited to Rely tampons, but the Rely tampons did play a major role," says Pollard. Proctor & Gamble voluntarily withdrew that tampon from the market in 1980, and competing manufacturers of tampons made from other superabsorbent materials began removing them as well.


Toxic Shock Syndrome
Cases Drop Dramatically

Compared with the 813 menstruation and tampon-caused toxic shock syndrome cases in 1980, there were only three confirmed cases in 1998 and six in 1997. "Although there is some underreporting of cases, this is a real decline," says Rana Hajjeh, M.D., a medical epidemiologist with CDC's division of bacterial and mycotic diseases. She attributes the drop in toxic shock syndrome rates to the removal of Rely from the market and advances in the way FDA regulates tampon materials and absorbency. Women also are much better educated about toxic shock syndrome prevention, she says.

FDA took its first step to protect the public in 1982, when it required that all tampon labels include toxic shock syndrome warning signs. In addition, packages had to include a note that the risk of menstrual TSS can be reduced by not using tampons and by alternating tampons with sanitary napkins. FDA also required that labels advise women to use the lowest absorbency needed to control their flow. CDC studies suggested that, in general, higher tampon absorbency was related to higher toxic shock syndrome risk.

In response to CDC findings and FDA regulatory activities, manufacturers standardized and, in some cases, lowered tampon absorbency. "What's considered superabsorbent today is much less absorbent than superabsorbent tampons used in 1980," Hajjeh says. In 1980, 42 percent of tampon users used very high absorbency tampons, according to CDC. That number dropped to 18 percent by 1983 and to 1 percent by 1986.

In 1990, FDA standardized absorbency labeling, allowing women to compare absorbencies across brands. Before the regulation, super absorbency in one brand could have been the same as regular in another brand. Now, FDA's labeling requirements ensure that a Playtex junior absorbency has an absorbency range of 6 grams of fluid or under, just as an O.B. junior absorbency does.

FDA's Pollard points out that the material of the Rely tampon and its absorbency were very different from that of tampons on the market today. "FDA also has improved its premarket review process and has begun looking at additional tampon characteristics," he says. He adds that all tampon manufacturers, including those introducing new materials, report to FDA on absorbency, as well as on the safety of all components of a tampon, including the cover, string and applicator, and on the chemical composition of any fragrances and color additives.

Companies conduct clinical tests in tampon users to look for bacterial growth and adverse effects, such as allergies and ulceration, with tampon use. Through toxicological testing, manufacturers must show that the tampon will not enhance the growth of Staphylococcus Aureus or increase the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin.

"This testing is ongoing for new tampon products," Richter says. "We continue to monitor tampons for safety issues."

FDA also tracks medical device problems through its MedWatch system, which allows consumers and health professionals to report adverse effects from FDA-regulated products.

Although toxic shock syndrome is rare, tampon users should still be aware of it, says Richter. "All tampons are associated with the risk of toxic shock syndrome, and it's important for women to know the signs," she says. "If a woman becomes ill or has any concerns at all about toxic shock syndrome, she should remove her tampon immediately and contact her doctor." 

Today, tampon manufacturers in this country produce tampons made of rayon, cotton, or a blend of the two. Cotton is commonly referred to as "natural," while rayon is considered "synthetic." But consumers shouldn't assume that "synthetic" means bad and "natural" means safer, says Jay Gooch, Ph.D., a toxicologist and senior scientist at Proctor and Gamble. Rayon is made from cellulose fibers derived from wood pulp. "Technically speaking, rayon is synthetic, but it's more like natural cellulose than it is different," Gooch says. "There is a lot of confusion out there about what rayon is and a lot of unsupported allegations about the safety of the two fibers." Previous CDC studies have found no increased risk with rayon versus cotton for the same absorbency and brand of tampon.

Other Tampon Ingredients

John McKeegan, spokesman for Johnson and Johnson, makers of O.B. tampons, says his company tells women who call with questions about the presence of cancer-causing dioxin in tampons that the company uses elemental chlorine-free bleaching, which does not produce dioxin.

Chlorine gas, which can produce a small amount of dioxin, used to be the bleaching agent for rayon used in tampons, says Gooch. "But elemental chlorine-free bleaching uses a chlorine dioxide agent. Chlorine dioxide may sound like chlorine gas, but they are two very different things," he says. Bleaching is necessary because all fibers have impurities associated with them that will inhibit absorbency. "Bleaching cleans and purifies raw material, but it does not leave toxins," he explains. And unlike what some people think, he adds, the white color of tampons is a consequence of the purification process, not an appearance goal.

Using a method approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, major tampon manufacturers have tested their products for dioxin. Data show that dioxin levels in tampons range from undetectable to 1 part in 3 trillion, far below the level that occurs through daily environmental exposure and considerably below the level FDA believes would put consumers at risk, Stratmeyer says.

"That doesn't mean that dioxin couldn't get there from another source," he adds. "You could end up with dioxin in rayon or cotton simply because of decades of pollution." It can be found in air, water or the ground before the wood pulp or the cotton is produced. "But what we know today is that you will find more dioxin already in your body than in any tampon," he says.

Many experts say the proof of tampon safety lies in its long history. But others want more research into diseases other than toxic shock syndrome. Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-N.Y.) introduced the Tampon Safety and Research Act in 1997 and again in March 1999. The bill, which was referred to the Subcommittee on Health and Environment, proposes to provide NIH with research support to determine the extent to which dioxin, synthetic fibers, and other additives in tampons pose health risks such as cancer, endometriosis, infertility, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

But from FDA's perspective, there is no indication right now that such research is necessary, Stratmeyer says. "We are not aware of evidence that would call for a large-scale study on tampons' relation to these diseases."

_______________________________________________________

Toxic Shock Syndrome Warning Signs

Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome can be hard to recognize because they mimic the flu. If you experience sudden high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, fainting, or a rash that looks like a sunburn during your period or a few days after, contact your doctor right away. Also, if you're wearing a tampon, remove it immediately. One or two weeks after initial symptoms begin, flaking and peeling of the skin occurs, mainly on the palms and soles. If your doctor determines that your symptoms are toxic shock syndrome, you will probably be sent to a hospital for treatment. With proper treatment, patients usually get well in two to three weeks.

Women under 30, especially teenagers, are at a higher risk for toxic shock syndrome, because some females that age may not yet have antibodies to the toxin. Using any kind of tampon--cotton or rayon of any absorbency--puts a woman at greater risk for toxic shock syndrome than using menstrual pads.

_______________________________________________________

Understanding Tampon Absorbency

Absorbency--the rate at which a tampon absorbs or soaks up menstrual blood--is measured in grams of fluid. Research suggests that the risk of toxic shock syndrome may increase with tampon absorbency. But that doesn't mean you have to steer clear of higher absorbency tampons completely, according to Colin Pollard, chief of FDA's obstetrics and gynecology branch. "You should match absorbency to your flow," he says. For a lighter flow, use regular or junior absorbency. If your tampon absorbs as much as it can and has to be changed before four hours, you may want to try a higher absorbency. There's usually less need for higher absorbency when your period is ending.

When you shop, you'll find these absorbency terms and ranges on all tampon packages:

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, your tampon is probably too absorbent if the tampon is hard to remove, you experience vaginal dryness, if a tampon shreds, or if it doesn't need to be changed after several hours. Vaginal dryness and ulcerations may occur when a tampon is too absorbent for your flow.

_______________________________________________________

Tips to Avoid Tampon Trouble

The strategy had worked for years, says Tracy, 28. She always inserted a small tampon on the morning she expected her period. But a few years ago, her period started one day late. "By the time it came, I had forgotten about the first tampon," she says. "The bleeding was so heavy that I figured I must not have had one in. So I put another one in."

All day she changed her tampon every few hours like she normally does. Then on one trip to the bathroom that night, she noticed a second string. When she finally removed the first tampon, the mild cramps she had experienced all day worsened. The pain became so intense she couldn't walk. Severe cramps and heavy bleeding ultimately landed her in the emergency room.

Putting in a tampon and forgetting about it is rare, but it does happen, says Gerald Joseph, M.D., former chairman of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at the Ochsner Medical Foundation. Joseph says he sees such cases--mostly among women under 30--a few times each year. Joanne, 44, says she forgot once and didn't realize the tampon was still there until six days later when she went to her doctor complaining of foul odor and vaginal discharge.

FDA recommends the following tips to help avoid tampon problems:

_______________________________________________________

Tampon Truth's and Tragedies

The Following Information Courtesy of: http://www.tamponalert.org.uk

and in Memory of Alice Kilvert, who died at the age of 15 due to
Tampon use and Toxic Shock Syndrome

Alice's Story

A picture of Alice.


Alice Kilvert, aged 15, died on Tuesday, 26th November 1991 of tampon-related Toxic Shock Syndrome at Trafford General Hospital, Manchester.

Alice's symptoms were initially very mild and did not cause any undue concern. On the Sunday prior to her death she complained of a headache which persisted, but eased with aspirin. During Sunday evening she was able to watch television, but she was sick during the night. Although very pale on Monday morning, she went to school in order to start her mock GCSE exams, but was taken home as she appeared to be developing influenza.. Alice went straight to bed and by tea time she had a slight temperature. At 7pm she was alert enough to talk about the early evening TV she had missed, but by 10pm she seemed vague and confused and a little faint.

The next morning Alice's breathing was shallow and she had a higher temperature, so the emergency doctor was called. The doctor phoned for an ambulance for Alice to be taken to hospital, but when the ambulance staff tested for blood pressure, it was so low it hardly registered. She arrived at hospital at 9am and her condition was diagnosed as either TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME or meningitis, and treatment began. She was taken into Intensive Care and put onto a ventilator as her breathing was giving cause for concern. However, the strain on her heart brought on two cardiac arrests. She did not recover from the second one and died at 1pm.


More Stories on Women and Girls who
Died or Were Injured due to Tampon use and
Tampon-induced
Toxic Shock Syndrome


1. KATIE OF NOTTINGHAMSHIRE.


In the summer of 1990, Katie, then aged 15, went on holiday to Devon with her family. It was a holiday that she'll never forget.

One morning she woke up with a headache and feeling shivery. Her mother thought that it could be flu and suggested that she should stay in bed. During the day her symptoms worsened as her temperature rose; she had aching muscles, a stiff neck and a sore mouth.

By tea time she became breathless and she was so weak that she needed assistance to go to the toilet. Her parents sent for the doctor, who diagnosed a virus and prescribed antibiotics. That night Katie's temperature soared to 102 degrees. The next morning she felt awful and had a severe headache. Her mother noticed a red rash on her leg. Katie's eyes were pink and sticky and her skin was turning yellow. The doctor was called again. He took one look at her and called for an ambulance. She was rushed to hospital.

At the hospital, the doctors performed a lumber puncture to test for meningitis and took a blood sample to test for glandular fever. Then the doctor discovered that Katie was menstruating and took a vaginal swab for testing. By now, her joints were swollen, her mouth was blistered, her liver and kidneys were failing and her veins and arteries had gone into spasm. She was transferred to Intensive Care.

The next morning a microbiologist had identified that Katie was suffering from Toxic Shock Syndrome, brought on by the tampons she had been using. She was being treated by the right antibiotics, and the doctors said that they would just have to wait and hope. Katie remained conscious for the three days that she was in Intensive Care. The pain was excruciating. She was transferred to a ward and after a week she was strong enough to go home with the aid of a wheelchair.

Katie felt weak for months. Thick layers of skin peeled off her hands and feet. This was as a result of the blood supply being cut off from her extremities during her illness. Then her hair started to fall out in clumps. This lasted for six months, and it has never grown back to its previous thickness. She realized that her memory wasn't as good and her ability to concentrate had diminished.

Katie remembers being told at school that Toxic Shock Syndrome is caused by leaving a tampon in too long. Now she knows differently. Any woman or girl who uses tampons can get TSS. That's why she'll never use tampons again. It might be rare, but you never know who it might strike next.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

2. JEAN OF SURREY.

Jean was 46 when she suffered from Toxic Shock Syndrome. It was the second day of her period and she was using tampons. She'd had a headache all day that wouldn't go away, so she decided to go to bed early that evening. Jean couldn't sleep and her headache intensified. Suddenly she was vomiting and suffering from diarrhea. Jean thought that it must be food poisoning. The next day, Jean felt no better, although the sickness and diarrhea had stopped. When she began to lapse into unconsciousness her daughter telephoned the doctor, who immediately summoned an ambulance. By this time Jean's lips had a bluish tinge and she was having breathing difficulties. She went into a coma on the way to hospital as her blood pressure plummeted.

In Intensive Care, Jean needed a ventilator and dialysis as her kidneys had ceased to function. Doctors noticed that the tips of her fingers and toes were turning black with gangrene. Over the next three weeks Jean was so weak that she only had a 20% chance of survival. Because of the drugs her weight ballooned from 10 stone to 13 stone. Her blonde hair turned grey and her green eyes turned blue. The gangrene spread to her knee, nose and the back of her head. Jean went into stress and was given a tracheotomy to help her to breathe. Her veins were collapsing and it was almost impossible to insert the necessary drips.

At this point the doctor asked Jean's husband if he could try an experimental drug which he hoped would increase her extremely low blood pressure. Within minutes Jean started to respond and her blood pressure began to increase. She was going to make it, although she was still critically ill. Two days later she opened her eyes and asked where she was. She noticed her black toes. Jean spent six months in hospital and eventually had her toes amputated. Her feet were very painful and she had to get used to walking again. Now she wears special shoes and occasionally uses a walking stick. Jean finds it difficult to concentrate and has problems with her short-term memory.

Jean says that it's a miracle that she's alive today. She has enormous admiration for the doctors, nurses and of course her family who were with her all the time. Jean says that she will never use a tampon again. She has told all her friends and neighbors not to believe those trendy tampon adverts on the TV. "Tampons nearly killed me and they will kill others," she says.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

3. JUDY OF OXFORDSHIRE.

Judy, a 27 year old mother, had been using tampons since she was 12. Her episode of Toxic Shock Syndrome began 10 weeks after the birth of her second daughter. She woke up on the third day of her period feeling tired and her head was spinning, but she had to look after her new baby and her 2 year old daughter. By evening she was exhausted and went to bed really early and just slept. The next morning, Judy got up and felt fine. But an hour after her husband had gone to work she had no strength to do anything. She vomited twice and had severe diarrhea. She phoned her mother to look after the girls and went back to bed. She felt worse and worse before eventually getting off to sleep.

The next morning was the same. Judy was fine until after her husband had left for work. A sudden attack of diarrhea hit her before she could reach the toilet. Once again she asked her mother to look after the children, and her mother also called the doctor. Judy was taken to the hospital by her sister-in-law and nearly fainted. Her legs were so painful and weak that she needed a wheelchair. Her skin was yellow. Judy was admitted to the infectious diseases ward for tests and the diarrhea was still running out of her. Within the hour they had put two drips into her. The doctors had found her tampon by now and had taken it away for testing. She had a rash on her lower legs and feet.

By the next morning, and numerous doctors later, they had diagnosed Toxic Shock Syndrome. Judy was put on even more drips and had heart and kidney checks. Her fingers and toes tingled all the time, like a burning sensation. The skin on her fingers and toes later peeled off and it was terrifying and very painful. A week in hospital and she was fit enough to go home.

Judy had to take tablets and return to hospital for heart and kidney checks and blood tests. She seemed to recover quite well, but lost her sense of taste for about 5 weeks. She was under health surveillance for 6 months and received the all clear. Then Judy's hair started falling out. It didn't leave her bald, but it was very thin in places. This lasted about two months before getting back to normal.

Judy says that not enough people know about the dangers of tampons and Toxic Shock Syndrome. She will never use tampons again, and there's no way she'd let her daughters use them either.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

4. ANNETTE OF MIDDLESEX

Annette was a healthy 17 year old at boarding school in Surrey. One Friday, in June 1989, just seven weeks before her 18th birthday, she felt a bit under the weather. She had just started her period and was using high absorbency tampons. By Sunday, she was in the school sick bay, and her worried parents were driving to visit her. Annette had a high temperature, severe headache and "appeared distant". However, it wasn't until the Wednesday that she was rushed to hospital, with what doctors thought was a burst appendix.

In the early hours of the Thursday, she was put onto a ventilator, and her parents had what was to be their last conversation with Annette. The doctors advised her parents that she was suffering from toxic shock syndrome, a disease that they had never heard of.

During the night Annette's condition suddenly deteriorated and she suffered two massive heart attacks and died.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

5. KAREN OF HAMPSHIRE.

One Thursday in January 1991, 20 year old Karen became ill with sickness and diarrhea. Although she was not aware of the connection, she was having her period and using tampons. She called the doctor who initially diagnosed gastro-enteritis and gave her some medicine. Karen continued vomiting, suffered severe diarrhea and was in agony, and on Sunday the doctor suspected appendicitis and she was rushed to hospital. As she was severely dehydrated, Karen was immediately put on a drip, whilst the diagnosis was being made.

The next morning (Monday), Karen felt fine and was laughing and joking with her parents. However, her mother noticed that her breathing was labored and that she had a red rash on her leg. But by 3 pm, Karen's condition worsened and she was given oxygen. By 9 pm she had lapsed into unconsciousness and transferred to Intensive Care. The medical staff did not know what was causing the problem, although toxic shock was considered. She had 15 tubes going into and out of her. At 10 pm Karen suffered a cardiac arrest, and the IC staff resuscitated her, but her condition was critical.

At 1 am on the Tuesday morning, Karen had a last injection to stimulate her blood flow, and her parents were told that this was her last hope.

Tragically, Karen died at 2.15 am from Toxic Shock Syndrome due to tampons.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________


6. DELYSE OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.


Delyse was a 32 year old secretary. Early in August 1993, Delyse' menstrual period started and she began using tampons as usual. However, this time it was to have tragic consequences.

On Saturday morning, Delyse suddenly started vomiting, had severe diarrhea and a high temperature. She thought that she was suffering from food poisoning. Later that day her partner called the doctor, who diagnosed flu.

On the Monday, Delyse went back to her GP who diagnosed gastritis - inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Her condition worsened and on Tuesday she was admitted to the local hospital with a suspected burst appendix.

Delyse seemed to be in a stable condition whilst the diagnosis began, but within 24 hours, she was rushed into Intensive Care, then onto a ventilator as her lungs had collapsed. She was then transferred to a specialist hospital nearby, where her condition improved slightly. When her vital organs, including liver and kidneys, failed, Delyse was put onto a dialysis machine.

After 5 weeks of fighting for her life, Delyse suffered a massive brain haemorrhage and died on 9th September.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

7. SHARON OF COUNTY DURHAM.

Sharon, a keen sportswoman, died of Toxic Shock Syndrome two months after giving birth to her second child.

Her husband Anthony recalls the joy and the tragedy of eight weeks in late 1991.

Twenty six year old Sharon used tampons for her first period after the birth of Rebecca. It started one Sunday when she began to feel very tired.

By Monday, Sharon was suffering with diarrhea, vomiting and a prickly red rash. The doctor was called and diagnosed a virus.

On Thursday, her condition had deteriorated. Now, Sharon's fingernails and lips were turning blue, the rash was like sunburn and she was having breathing difficulties.
Sharon was rushed to hospital. Her condition improved slightly, but then her kidneys collapsed and she was transferred to Intensive Care. Doctors diagnosed toxic shock syndrome, caused by the tampon that she had been using.

The deadly toxins were causing all sorts of problems as they poisoned every part of her body. Her lungs were beginning to fail and she was transferred to the Regional specialist hospital where a lung transplant was considered. However, Sharon was too ill to undertake this operation. Doctors fought so hard to save her life, but after eight weeks of intensive care, Sharon suffered a cardiac arrest and died

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________


8. SHANE OF BRISTOL.


Thirty three year old mother of two, Shane, died of tampon-related Toxic Shock Syndrome in March 1994.

On Friday 4th March, Shane said she didn't feel well. During the early hours of Saturday morning she began vomiting and felt awful. She asked her mother to look after the children.

By Sunday she was suffering severe diarrhea, she had a red rash and was now semi conscious. She had a high temperature, her breathing was labored, and she had pus coming from her eyes. At 9 am her husband phoned the doctor who suggested that it was a stomach bug. Shane's husband insisted that the doctor must visit, but on arrival, the doctor confirmed a stomach bug, and suggested paracetamol to lower her temperature.

By Monday, Shane's condition had not improved and her mother called the doctor again. The doctor took one look at Shane and called an ambulance. She arrived at hospital at 3 pm and went straight into Intensive Care. But after six cardiac arrests, Shane died at 5.30 pm.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

9. PAMELA OF EDINBURGH.

One Sunday in March 1993, Pamela aged 34, took to her bed with a severe sore throat. At the time she knew that a lot of people round about had flu, so she thought that she must be getting it too.

On Monday morning she felt really faint. Her husband went off to work, but asked Pamela's mother to phone the doctor. The doctor diagnosed a sore throat and prescribed penicillin. Although Pamela was able to talk coherently to the doctor, she can't remember the rest of the day, not even talking strangely to her husband when he arrived home from work. She felt so tired. The doctor was telephoned again and he suggested looking to see if Pamela had spots on her feet! She did have. The doctor called 'round again and got her admitted to hospital with suspected meningitis.

Luck was with Pamela that evening because the Specialist on duty had seen Toxic Shock Syndrome before. The tampon that had been removed when Pamela was admitted to the hospital was tested positively for Staphylococcus aureus and TSS was diagnosed.

Ten days of hospital treatment saved Pamela's life, but she was so weak that she had to leave the hospital in a wheelchair and learn how to walk again.

It took months to recover physically and even longer to recover mentally. She lost a lot of her hair, her skin started peeling off and she ached all over. She had been using tampons since she was 17, but will never again use tampons.

Posted 30/12/2000

___________________________________________________

10. FIONA OF ROSS-SHIRE.

On New years Eve 1990, 22 year old Fiona, woke up with crippling period pain. Her mother phoned work to let them know that Fiona would not be in today. As the day wore on Fiona became worse and started vomiting. At tea time the doctor was called and flu was diagnosed. But over the next few hours, Fiona's condition deteriorated. She started with diarrhea, her temperature soared and she developed a rash all over her neck. A worried mother called the doctor again at 2 am, and again flu was diagnosed.

The next morning, Fiona was unconscious and the ambulance was called. On arrival at the hospital, meningitis was first suspected, (but it wasn't until 3 months later that tampon-related toxic shock syndrome was confirmed). Fiona's temperature had rocketed and she was surrounded by bags of ice. The intensive care staff worked through the day, but at 3 am the next morning, Fiona suffered a cardiac arrest. The team managed to save Fiona, but the shattering news was that Fiona may be brain damaged, blind and paralyzed in all four limbs.

In the next two weeks Fiona fought for her life. Her kidneys failed and she needed dialysis, and her toes turned black with gangrene and would have to be amputated.

Three months later, Fiona started to come out of her coma. She couldn't speak, but she could hear and smile. Fiona stayed in hospital over the next year and was on drips and dialysis, and having physiotherapy and speech therapy. She was transferred to a Nursing home to be close to her parents. As a result of using a tampon, Fiona is totally blind, confined to a wheelchair, unable to use her arms and only has limited speech.

For more information on the above stories, please contact:

Alice Kilvert Tampon Alert
16 Blinco Road
Urmston
Manchester, UK
M41 9NF
Telephone or Fax: 0161-748-3123
Email: Enquiries@TamponAlert.org.uk

____________________________________

FAQ's About Tampons, Tampon Safety
and Toxic Shock Syndrome

I thought that you only got Toxic Shock Syndrome if you forgot to change your tampon. Is this true?

Any woman may develop Toxic Shock Syndrome when using tampons as directed by the manufacturer's instructions if she is carrying the particular strain of bacteria that produces toxins and if she has not developed immunity to these toxins.

The exact combination of circumstances in which toxin production occurs in the vagina of individual women is not known. It is therefore not possible to state any completely safe time limits on the use of a tampon, although it could be assumed that the longer a tampon is left in place or the more tampons are used continuously, the greater the chance of toxin production starting. This is why we recommend keeping tampon use to a minimum and breaking the use regularly by using a sanitary towel/pad.

All known victims of Toxic Shock Syndrome followed the manufacturers instructions on usage implicitly, but they still became seriously ill or even died.

We think that there are several reasons why people think that a "forgotten tampon" causes Toxic Shock Syndrome:


Can you catch
Toxic Shock Syndrome from other people?

No.
Toxic Shock Syndrome is not a contagious disease that can spread to others.


What is the link between
Toxic Shock Syndrome and tampon use?

The link between TSS and tampons is not completely understood.

However, tampon research highlights three high RISK FACTORS: high absorbency tampons, continuous tampon use and low body immunity.

Tampon Absorbency: the higher the absorbency the higher the risk; the lower the absorbency the lower the risk. That is why a woman should always use the lowest absorbency tampon for her menstrual flow. It also accounts for the high number of deaths due to super-absorbent tampons in 1980.

Continuous tampon use: women should not use tampons continuously during a period. It is recommended that the most convenient time to break the continuous use is at night, by using a sanitary towel/pad.

Low immunity: this is the factor that you cannot control as it may vary from time to time. It is generally understood that immunity improves with age therefore girls are at a higher risk that older women.


Is it possible to get
Toxic Shock Syndrome more than once?

Yes. A person who has had
Toxic Shock Syndrome can develop it again. If a woman or girl has had Toxic Shock Syndrome in the past, it is advisable not to use tampons again.

Menstrual-related Toxic Shock Syndrome recurs in around 30% of cases. Dr Mary Andrews of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Centre in New Hampshire, advises that symptoms were most likely to return in women who were not treated during their first attack, and continued to use tampons. Two thirds of Dr Andrews' study group experienced a recurrence within 5 months, although only 16% of women who were treated had recurring symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome.


Toxic Shock Syndrome
Symptoms

What are the symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome?

Symptoms can be similar to flu or food poisoning, but they can become serious very quickly.

The symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome include one or more of the following:

What should I do if I get these symptoms?

If you have any of these symptoms and are using a tampon you should, remove and save your tampon and seek immediate medical attention (preferably at an emergency HOSPITAL). Tell the doctor that you have been using tampons and suspect Toxic Shock Syndrome

Don't worry about wasting the doctor's time, you could be saving your life.

___________________________________________________

What Is The Treatment For Toxic Shock Syndrome?

With early diagnosis, Toxic Shock Syndrome can generally be effectively treated with antibiotics and other medication to counteract the symptoms.

Professor Joan Chesney, Head of Paediatrics at the University of Tennessee said in September 1997 that concerns that Staphylococcus Aureus could become resistant to antibiotics have so far proved unfounded. Tests on Toxic Shock Syndrome-associated strains of Staphylococcus Aureus at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire failed to find any methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), the strain which has caused so many problems for hospitals in Europe and America. All 62 samples from menstrual and non-menstrual cases referred to the D-H Medical Center between 1984 and 1995, were susceptible to two key antibiotics - oxacillin and clindamycin - although only a handful would have responded to treatment with penicillan.

Standard therapy for Toxic Shock Syndrome continues to be on high-dose antibiotics, usually with a beta lactam agent, with or without clindamycin or a related drug. You also need to stop toxin production which can be best done with a protein synthesis inhibitor such as clindamycin, gentamycin, erythromycin or clarithromycin. Introvenous fluids are another essential aspect of management, but doubts remain over the value of introvenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) injections as they carry the risk of side-effects.

___________________________________________________

Choosing the Right Tampon Absorbency or "Size"

When using tampons, it's important to choose the lowest absorbency necessary for your menstrual flow. Because the amount of flow varies from day to day, it is likely that you will need to use different absorbencies on different days of your period. Selecting the right absorbency comes with experience, but as a guide, if a tampon absorbs as much as it can and has to be changed before 4 hours, then you may want to try a higher absorbency. On the other hand, if you remove a tampon and after 4-6 hours white fibre is still showing, you should choose a lower absorbency.

Research indicates that tampons should not be used continuously during a period as continuous use is a high risk factor. The most obvious time to break this continuous use is at night. AKTA recommends the use of a sanitary towel at night. However, if you choose to use a tampon at night, choose the lowest absorbency needed, insert a fresh one just before going to bed and remove it as soon as you wake up in the morning. Slim line tampons are quite absorbent for their size, so it is highly recommended that young girls do not use tampons at night.

___________________________________________________

Staphylococcus Aureus
www.StaphylococcusAureus.net


Feminine Hygiene, Tampon Safety

and

Toxic Shock Syndrome

While Rare, Toxic Shock Syndrome 
Still Happens from Tampon Use

 

Suggestions for Tampon Use and Tampon Safety:

1. Don't Use Tampons Overnight,

2. Don't Leave the Same Tampon in your Vagina 
for More than 4-6 hours, 

3. Change Your Tampon Every 4 Hours,

4.  Avoid "Super Absorbent" Tampons, 

5. Remove the Last Tampon at the End of your Period!


References

1. CDC. Toxic-shock syndrome--United States. MMWR

1980;29:229-30.

2. Todd J, Fishaut M, Kapral F, Welch T. Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-1 staphylococci. Lancet 1978;2:1116-8.

3. CDC. Follow-up on toxic-shock syndrome--United States. MMWR 1980;29:297-9.

4. Osterholm MT, Davis JP, Gibson RW, et al. Tri-state toxic-shock syndrome study: I. Epidemiologic findings. J Infect Dis 1982;145:431-40.

5. Schlech WF, Shands KN, Reingold AL, et al. Risk factors for development of toxic shock syndrome: association with a tampon brand. JAMA 1982;248:835-9.

6. Berkley SF, Hightower AW, Broome CV, Reingold AL. The relationship of tampon characteristics to menstrual toxic shock syndrome. JAMA 1987;258:917-20.

7. Gaventa S, Reingold AL, Hightower AW, et al. Active surveillance for toxic shock syndrome in the United States, 1986. Rev Infect Dis 1989;2(suppl S1):S35-42.

8. Davis JP, Chesney PJ, Wand PJ, LaVenture M, the Investigation and Laboratory Team. Toxic-shock syndrome: epidemiologic features, recurrence, risk factors, and prevention. N Engl J Med 1980;303:1429-35.

9. Osterholm MT, Forfang JC. Toxic-shock syndrome in Minnesota: results of an active-passive surveillance system. J Infect Dis 1982;145:458-64. 10. Latham RH, Kehrberg MW, Jacobson JA, Smith CB. Toxic shock syndrome in Utah: a case-control and surveillance study. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:906-8. 11. Broome CV. Epidemiology of TSS in the United States: overview. Rev Infect Dis 1989;2 (suppl S1):S14-21.

___________________________________________________

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